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Scintillator ageing of the T2K near detectors from 2010 to 2021

Abe, K. and Akhlaq, N. and Akutsu, R. and Ali, A. and Alt, C. and Andreopoulos, C. and Antonova, M. and Aoki, S. and Arihara, T. and Asada, Y. and Ashida, Y. and Atkin, E. T. and Ban, S. and Barbi, M. and Barker, G. J. and Barr, G. and Barrow, D. and Batkiewicz-Kwasniak, M. and Bench, F. and Berardi, V. and Berns, L. and Bhadra, S. and Blanchet, A. and Blondel, A. and Bolognesi, S. and Bonus, T. and Bordoni, S. and Boyd, S. B. and Bravar, A. and Bronner, C. and Bron, S. and Bubak, A. and Buizza Avanzini, M. and Calabria, N. F. and Cao, S. and Carter, A. J. and Cartwright, S. L. and Catanesi, M. G. and Cervera, A. and Chakrani, J. and Cherdack, D. and Christodoulou, G. and Cicerchia, M. and Coleman, J. and Collazuol, G. and Cook, L. and Cudd, A. and Davydov, Yu. I. and De Roeck, A. and De Rosa, G. and Dealtry, T. and Delogu, C. C. and Densham, C. and Dergacheva, A. and Di Lodovico, F. and Dolan, S. and Douqa, D. and Doyle, T. A. and Drapier, O. and Duffy, K. E. and Dumarchez, J. and Dunne, P. and Dygnarowicz, K. and Eguchi, A. and Emery-Schrenk, S. and Ershova, A. and Fedotov, S. and Fernandez, P. and Finch, A. J. and Fiorentini Aguirre, G .A. and Fiorillo, G. and Friend, M. and Fujii, Y. and Fukuda, Y. and Fusshoeller, K. and Giganti, C. and Glagolev, V. and Gonin, M. and Goodman, E. A. G. and Gorin, A. and Grassi, M. and Guigue, M. and Hadley, D. R. and Haigh, J. T. and Hamacher-Baumann, P. and Harris, D. A. and Hartz, M. and Hasegawa, T. and Hassani, S. and Hastings, N. C. and Hatzikoutelis, A. and Hayato, Y. and Hiramoto, A. and Hogan, M. and Holeczek, J. and Holin, A. and Holvey, T. J. and Hong Van, N. T. and Honjo, T. and Iacob, F. and Ichikawa, A. K. and Ikeda, M. and Ishida, T. and Ishitsuka, M. and Israel, H. T. and Ives, S. J. and Iwamoto, K. and Izmaylov, A. and Izumi, N. and Jakkapu, M. and Jamieson, B. and Jenkins, S. J. and Jesús-Valls, C. and Jiang, J. J. and Jonsson, P. and Jung, C. K. and Jurj, P. 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R. and Wood, K. and Wret, C. and Xia, J. and Xu, Y.-h. and Yamamoto, K. and Yanagisawa, C. and Yang, G. and Yano, T. and Yasutome, K. and Yershov, N. and Yevarouskaya, U. and Yokoyama, M. and Yoshimoto, Y. and Yu, M. and Zaki, R. and Zalewska, A. and Zalipska, J. and Zaremba, K. and Zarnecki, G. and Zhao, X. and Zhu, T. and Ziembicki, M. and Zimmerman, E. D. and Zito, M. and Zsoldos, S. (2022) Scintillator ageing of the T2K near detectors from 2010 to 2021. Journal of Instrumentation, 17 (10). Art. No. P10028. ISSN 1748-0221. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/17/10/p10028.

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The T2K experiment widely uses plastic scintillator as a target for neutrino interactions and an active medium for the measurement of charged particles produced in neutrino interactions at its near detector complex. Over 10 years of operation the measured light yield recorded by the scintillator based subsystems has been observed to degrade by 0.9–2.2% per year. Extrapolation of the degradation rate through to 2040 indicates the recorded light yield should remain above the lower threshold used by the current reconstruction algorithms for all subsystems. This will allow the near detectors to continue contributing to important physics measurements during the T2K-II and Hyper-Kamiokande eras. Additionally, work to disentangle the degradation of the plastic scintillator and wavelength shifting fibres shows that the reduction in light yield can be attributed to the ageing of the plastic scintillator. The long component of the attenuation length of the wavelength shifting fibres was observed to degrade by 1.3–5.4% per year, while the short component of the attenuation length did not show any conclusive degradation.

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Additional Information:We thank the J-PARC staff for superb accelerator performance. We thank the CERN NA61/SHINE Collaboration for providing valuable particle production data. We acknowledge the support of MEXT, JSPS KAKENHI (JP16H06288, JP18K03682, JP18H03701, JP18H05537, JP19J01119, JP19J22440, JP19J22258, JP20H00162, JP20H00149, JP20J20304) and bilateral programs (JPJSBP120204806, JPJSBP120209601), Japan; NSERC, the NRC, and CFI, Canada; the CEA and CNRS/IN2P3, France; the DFG (RO 3625/2), Germany; the INFN, Italy; the Ministry of Education and Science(DIR/WK/2017/05) and the National Science Centre (UMO-2018/30/E/ST2/00441), Poland; the RSF19-12-00325, RSF22-12-00358 and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (075-15-2020-778), Russia; MICINN (SEV-2016-0588, PID2019-107564GB-I00, PGC2018-099388-BI00) and ERDF funds and CERCA program, Spain; the SNSF and SERI (200021_185012, 200020_188533, 20FL21_186178I), Switzerland; the STFC, U.K.; and the DOE, U.S.A. We also thank CERN for the UA1/NOMAD magnet, DESY for the HERA-B magnet mover system, NII for SINET5, the WestGrid and SciNet consortia in Compute Canada, and GridPP in the United Kingdom. In addition, the participation of individual researchers and institutions has been further supported by funds from the ERC (FP7), “la Caixa” Foundation (ID 100010434, fellowship code LCF/BQ/IN17/11620050), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement numbers 713673 and 754496, and H2020 grant numbers RISE-GA822070-JENNIFER2 2020 and RISE-GA872549-SK2HK; the JSPS, Japan; the Royal Society, U.K.; French ANR grant number ANR-19-CE31-0001; and the DOE Early Career programme, U.S.A.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP16H06288
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03682
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03701
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05537
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19J01119
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19J22440
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19J22258
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20H00162
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20H00149
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20J20304
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)PJSBP120204806
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JPJSBP120209601
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Council of CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RO 3625/2
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland)DIR/WK/2017/05
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2018/30/E/ST2/00441
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Russia)RSF19-12-00325
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Russia)RSF22-12-00358
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Russia)075-15-2020-778
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-107564GB-I00
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PGC2018-099388-BI00
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Centres de Recerca de Catalunya (CERCA)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SER)200021_185012
State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SER)200020_188533
State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SER)20FL21_186178I
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
La Caixa Foundation100010434
La Caixa FoundationLCF/BQ/IN17/11620050
Marie Curie Fellowship713673
Marie Curie Fellowship754496
European Research Council (ERC)822070
European Research Council (ERC)872549
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-19-CE31-0001
Issue or Number:10
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ID Code:118788
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:31 Jan 2023 21:32
Last Modified:31 Jan 2023 21:32

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