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ᴛʀɪɴɪᴛʏ I: self-consistently modelling the dark matter halo-galaxy-supermassive black hole connection from z = 0-10

Zhang, Haowen and Behroozi, Peter and Volonteri, Marta and Silk, Joseph and Fan, Xiaohui and Hopkins, Philip F. and Yang, Jinyi and Aird, James (2023) ᴛʀɪɴɪᴛʏ I: self-consistently modelling the dark matter halo-galaxy-supermassive black hole connection from z = 0-10. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 518 (2). pp. 2123-2163. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2633.

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We present ᴛʀɪɴɪᴛʏ, a flexible empirical model that self-consistently infers the statistical connection between dark matter haloes, galaxies, and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). ᴛʀɪɴɪᴛʏ is constrained by galaxy observables from 0 < z < 10 [galaxies’ stellar mass functions, specific and cosmic star formation rates (SFRs), quenched fractions, and UV luminosity functions] and SMBH observables from 0 < z < 6.5 (quasar luminosity functions, quasar probability distribution functions, active black hole mass functions, local SMBH mass–bulge mass relations, and the observed SMBH mass distributions of high-redshift bright quasars). The model includes full treatment of observational systematics [e.g. active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscuration and errors in stellar masses]. From these data, ᴛʀɪɴɪᴛʏ infers the average SMBH mass, SMBH accretion rate, merger rate, and Eddington ratio distribution as functions of halo mass, galaxy stellar mass, and redshift. Key findings include: (1) the normalization and the slope of the SMBH mass–bulge mass relation increases mildly from z = 0 to z = 10; (2) The best-fitting AGN radiative+kinetic efficiency is ∼0.05–0.06, but can be in the range ∼0.035–0.07 with alternative input assumptions; (3) AGNs show downsizing, i.e. the Eddington ratios of more massive SMBHs start to decrease earlier than those of lower mass objects; (4) The average ratio between average SMBH accretion rate and SFR is ∼10⁻³ for low-mass galaxies, which are primarily star-forming. This ratio increases to ∼10⁻¹ for the most massive haloes below z ∼ 1, where star formation is quenched but SMBHs continue to accrete.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Zhang, Haowen0000-0002-4321-3538
Behroozi, Peter0000-0002-2517-6446
Volonteri, Marta0000-0002-3216-1322
Silk, Joseph0000-0002-1566-8148
Fan, Xiaohui0000-0003-3310-0131
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Yang, Jinyi0000-0001-5287-4242
Aird, James0000-0003-1908-8463
Additional Information:We thank Stacey Alberts, Rachael Amaro, Gurtina Besla, Haley Bowden, Jane Bright, Katie Chamberlain, Alison Coil, Ryan Endsley, Sandy Faber, Hayden Foote, Dan Foreman-Mackey, Nico Garavito-Camargo, Nickolay Gnedin, Richard Green, Jenny Greene, Kate Grier, Melanie Habouzit, Kevin Hainline, Elaheh Hayati, Andrew Hearin, Julie Hlavacek-Larrondo, Luis Ho, Allison Hughes, Yun-Hsin Huang, Raphael Hviding, Victoria Jones, Stephanie Juneau, Ryan Keenan, Oddisey Knox, David Koo, Andrey Kravtsov, Daniel Lawther, Rixin Li, Joseph Long, Jianwei Lyu, Chung-Pei Ma, Garreth Martin, Karen Olsen, Feryal Özel, Vasileios Paschalidis, Ekta Patel, Dimitrios Psaltis, Joel Primack, Yujing Qin, Eliot Quataert, George Rieke, Marcia Rieke, Paolo Salucci, Jan-Torge Schindler, Spencer Scott, Xuejian Shen, Yue Shen, Dongdong Shi, Irene Shivaei, Rachel Somerville, Fengwu Sun, Wei-Leong Tee, Yoshihiro Ueda, Marianne Vestergaard, Feige Wang, Ben Weiner, Christina Williams, Charity Woodrum, Jiachuan Xu, Minghao Yue, Dennis Zaritsky, Huanian Zhang, Xiaoshuai Zhang, and Zhanbo Zhang for very valuable discussions. Support for this research came partially via program number HST-AR-15631.001-A, provided through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute under NASA contract NAS5-26555. PB was partially funded by a Packard Fellowship, Grant #2019-69646. PB was also partially supported by a Giacconi Fellowship from the Space Telescope Science Institute. Finally, PB was also partially supported through program number HST-HF2-51353.001-A, provided by NASA through a Hubble Fellowship grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Data compilations from many studies used in this paper were made much more accurate and efficient by the online WEBPLOTDIGITIZER code.1 This research has made extensive use of the arXiv and NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. This research used the Ocelote supercomputer of the University of Arizona. The allocation of computer time from the UA Research Computing High Performance Computing (HPC) at the University of Arizona is gratefully acknowledged. The Bolshoi–Planck simulation was performed by Anatoly Klypin within the Bolshoi project of the University of California High-Performance AstroComputing Center (UC-HiPACC; PI Joel Primack).
Group:Astronomy Department, TAPIR
Funding AgencyGrant Number
David and Lucile Packard Foundation2019-69646
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51353.001-A
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230117-370770100.26
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:118822
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:10 Feb 2023 19:14
Last Modified:10 Feb 2023 19:14

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