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Metasurface‐Enabled Holographic Lithography for Impact‐Absorbing Nano‐Architected Sheets

Kagias, Matias and Lee, Seola and Greer, Julia R. and Friedman, Andrew C. and Zheng, Tianzhe and Faraon, Andrei and Veysset, David (2023) Metasurface‐Enabled Holographic Lithography for Impact‐Absorbing Nano‐Architected Sheets. Advanced Materials . Art. No. 2209153. ISSN 0935-9648. doi:10.1002/adma.202209153. (In Press)

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Nano-architected materials represent a class of structural meta-materials that utilze nanoscale features to achieve unconventional material properties such as ultra-low density and high energy absorption. A dearth of fabrication methods capable of producing architected materials with sub-micron resolution over large areas in a scalable manner exists. We present a fabrication technique that employs holographic patterns generated by laser exposure of phase metasurface masks in negative-tone photoresists to produce 30 to 40 micrometer thick nano-architected sheets with 2.1 x 2.4 cm² lateral dimensions and approximately 500 nm wide struts organized in layered 3D brick-and-mortar-like patterns to result in approximately 50 to 70% porosity. Nanoindentation arrays over the entire sample area reveal the out-of-plane elastic modulus to vary between 300 MPa and 4 GPa, with irrecoverable post-elastic material deformation commencing via individual nano-strut buckling, densification within layers, shearing along perturbation perimeter, and tensile cracking. Laser induced particle impact tests (LIPIT) indicate specific inelastic energy dissipation of 0.51-2.61 MJ kg⁻¹, which is comparable to other high-impact energy absorbing composites and nanomaterials, such as Kevlar/polyvinyl butyral (PVB) composite, polystyrene, and pyrolized carbon nanolattices with 23% relative density. These results demonstrate that holographic lithography offers a promising platform for scalable manufacturing of nano-architected materials with impact resistant capabilities.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Information
Kagias, Matias0000-0003-0435-6672
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Zheng, Tianzhe0000-0001-7058-5196
Faraon, Andrei0000-0002-8141-391X
Veysset, David0000-0003-4473-1983
Additional Information:M.K, S.L, and A.F., contributed equally to this work. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from nFugue through the Office of Sponsored Research at Caltech. We also acknowledge Dr. Seyedeh Mahsa Kamali, Dr. Farzaneh Afshinmanesh, Dr. Luizetta Elliott, Phillippe Pearson, Prakriti Somani, and Suki Gu who helped with this project, and Dr. Carlos Portela who helped with the LIPIT experiments. M.K acknowledges the Swiss National Science Foundation for financial support (grant Nr P400P2_194371). Useful discussions with Jim Demetriades, Travis Blake, and Terrisa Duenas are also gratefully acknowledged. Conflict of Interest. JRG and AF have financial interest in nFugue, a start-up company that scales up nano-architected materials, as founders.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)P400P2_194371
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230202-570644000.3
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:118993
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:02 Feb 2023 21:04
Last Modified:02 Feb 2023 21:04

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