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The Gravitational Imprint of an Interior–Orbital Resonance in Jupiter–Io

Idini, Benjamin and Stevenson, David J. (2022) The Gravitational Imprint of an Interior–Orbital Resonance in Jupiter–Io. Planetary Science Journal, 3 (4). Art. No. 89. ISSN 2632-3338. doi:10.3847/psj/ac6179.

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At mid-mission perijove 17, NASA's Juno mission has revealed a 7σ discrepancy between Jupiter's observed high-degree tidal response and the theoretical equilibrium tidal response, namely, the Love number k₄₂. Here we propose an interpretation for this puzzling disagreement based on an interior–orbital resonance between internal gravity waves trapped in Jupiter's dilute core and the orbital motion of Io. We use simple Jupiter models to calculate a fractional correction Δk₄₂ to the equilibrium tidal response that comes from the dynamical tidal response of a g–mode trapped in Jupiter's dilute core. Our results suggest that an extended dilute core (r ≳ 0.7 R_J) produces an interior–orbital resonance with Io that modifies Jupiter's tidal response in Δk₄₂ ∼ −11%, allowing us to fit Juno's k₄₂. In our proposed self-consistent scenario, Jupiter's dilute core evolves in resonant locking with Io's orbital migration, which allows the interior–orbital resonance to persist over geological timescales. This scenario requires a dilute core that becomes smoother or shrinks over time, together with a ²₄g₁ mode (ℓ, m, n = 4, 2, 1) with resonant tidal dissipation reaching Q₄ ∼ 1000. Jupiter's dilute core evolution path and the dissipation mechanism for the resonant ²₄g₁ mode are uncertain and motivate future analysis. No other alternative exists so far to explain the 7σ discrepancy in Juno k₄₂. Our proposed interior–orbital resonance can be tested by Juno observations of k₄₂ tides raised on Jupiter by Europa, as obtained at the end of the extended mission (mid-2025), and by future seismological observations of Jupiter's ²₄g₁ mode oscillation frequency.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ItemDiscussion Paper
Idini, Benjamin0000-0002-2697-3893
Stevenson, David J.0000-0001-9432-7159
Additional Information:We acknowledge the support of NASA's Juno mission. We are grateful for the constructive comments of two anonymous referees. We benefited from constructive discussions with James Fuller, Christopher Mankovich, Luciano Iess, and Daniele Durante.
Group:Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230203-893210800.11
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:119009
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:06 Feb 2023 17:11
Last Modified:06 Feb 2023 17:11

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