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Mixing of Condensable Constituents with H-He during the Formation and Evolution of Jupiter

Stevenson, David J. and Bodenheimer, Peter and Lissauer, Jack J. and D'Angelo, Gennaro (2022) Mixing of Condensable Constituents with H-He during the Formation and Evolution of Jupiter. Planetary Science Journal, 3 (4). Art. No. 74. ISSN 2632-3338. doi:10.3847/psj/ac5c44.

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Simulations of Jupiter's formation are presented that incorporate mixing of H–He with denser material entering the planet as solids. Heavy compounds and gas mix substantially when the planet becomes roughly as massive as Earth, because incoming planetesimals can fully vaporize. Supersaturation of vaporized silicates causes the excess to sink as droplets, but water remains at higher altitudes. Because the mean molecular weight decreases rapidly outward, some of the compositional inhomogeneities produced during formation can survive for billions of years. After 4.57 Gyr, our Jupiter model retains compositional gradients; proceeding outward, one finds (i) an inner heavy-element core, the outer part derived from hot supersaturated rain-out; (ii) a composition-gradient region, containing most of the heavy elements, where H–He abundance increases outward, reaching about 0.9 mass fraction at 0.3 of the radius, with silicates enhanced relative to water in the lower parts and depleted in the upper parts; (iii) a uniform-composition region (neglecting He immiscibility) that is enriched over protosolar and contains most of the planet’s mass; and (iv) an outer region where cloud formation (condensation) of heavy constituents occurs. This radial compositional profile has heavy elements more broadly distributed than predicted by classical formation models but less diluted than suggested by Juno-constrained gravity models. The compositional gradients in the region containing the bulk of the heavy elements prevent convection, in both our models and those fitting current gravity, resulting in a hot interior where much of the accretion energy remains trapped.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Stevenson, David J.0000-0001-9432-7159
Bodenheimer, Peter0000-0001-6093-3097
Lissauer, Jack J.0000-0001-6513-1659
D'Angelo, Gennaro0000-0002-2064-0801
Additional Information:We thank Kevin Zahnle, Richard Freedman, and two reviewers for insightful comments that helped improve the paper. Primary support for this work was provided by NASA's Emerging Worlds program funding of proposal 18-EW18_2_0060. G.D. acknowledges support from NASA ROSES grant 80HQTR19T0071. P.B. acknowledges support from NASA Origins grant NNX14AG92G. A significant contribution was made by R. Helled, who provided the equation-of-state tables for mixtures including silicates and water. Computational resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center.
Group:Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
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Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230203-893210800.14
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ID Code:119011
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:24 Feb 2023 20:27
Last Modified:24 Feb 2023 20:27

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