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Long non-coding RNAs: definitions, functions, challenges and recommendations

Mattick, John S. and Amaral, Paulo P. and Carninci, Piero and Carpenter, Susan and Chang, Howard Y. and Chen, Ling-Ling and Chen, Runsheng and Dean, Caroline and Dinger, Marcel E. and Fitzgerald, Katherine A. and Gingeras, Thomas R. and Guttman, Mitchell and Hirose, Tetsuro and Huarte, Maite and Johnson, Rory and Kanduri, Chandrasekhar and Kapranov, Philipp and Lawrence, Jeanne B. and Lee, Jeannie T. and Mendell, Joshua T. and Mercer, Timothy R. and Moore, Kathryn J. and Nakagawa, Shinichi and Rinn, John L. and Spector, David L. and Ulitsky, Igor and Wan, Yue and Wilusz, Jeremy E. and Wu, Mian (2023) Long non-coding RNAs: definitions, functions, challenges and recommendations. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology . ISSN 1471-0072. doi:10.1038/s41580-022-00566-8. (In Press)

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Genes specifying long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) occupy a large fraction of the genomes of complex organisms. The term ‘lncRNAs’ encompasses RNA polymerase I (Pol I), Pol II and Pol III transcribed RNAs, and RNAs from processed introns. The various functions of lncRNAs and their many isoforms and interleaved relationships with other genes make lncRNA classification and annotation difficult. Most lncRNAs evolve more rapidly than protein-coding sequences, are cell type specific and regulate many aspects of cell differentiation and development and other physiological processes. Many lncRNAs associate with chromatin-modifying complexes, are transcribed from enhancers and nucleate phase separation of nuclear condensates and domains, indicating an intimate link between lncRNA expression and the spatial control of gene expression during development. lncRNAs also have important roles in the cytoplasm and beyond, including in the regulation of translation, metabolism and signalling. lncRNAs often have a modular structure and are rich in repeats, which are increasingly being shown to be relevant to their function. In this Consensus Statement, we address the definition and nomenclature of lncRNAs and their conservation, expression, phenotypic visibility, structure and functions. We also discuss research challenges and provide recommendations to advance the understanding of the roles of lncRNAs in development, cell biology and disease.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Mattick, John S.0000-0002-7680-7527
Carninci, Piero0000-0001-7202-7243
Carpenter, Susan0000-0002-5600-5404
Chang, Howard Y.0000-0002-9459-4393
Chen, Ling-Ling0000-0001-9501-0305
Chen, Runsheng0000-0001-6049-8347
Dean, Caroline0000-0002-6555-3525
Dinger, Marcel E.0000-0003-4423-934X
Fitzgerald, Katherine A.0000-0003-3175-609X
Gingeras, Thomas R.0000-0001-9106-3573
Guttman, Mitchell0000-0003-4748-9352
Hirose, Tetsuro0000-0003-1068-5464
Huarte, Maite0000-0003-3753-6493
Johnson, Rory0000-0003-4607-2782
Kanduri, Chandrasekhar0000-0001-6271-9078
Kapranov, Philipp0000-0003-2647-4856
Lawrence, Jeanne B.0000-0001-6572-3128
Lee, Jeannie T.0000-0001-7786-8850
Mendell, Joshua T.0000-0001-8479-2284
Mercer, Timothy R.0000-0001-8780-894X
Moore, Kathryn J.0000-0003-2505-2547
Nakagawa, Shinichi0000-0002-6806-7493
Rinn, John L.0000-0002-7231-7539
Spector, David L.0000-0003-3614-4965
Ulitsky, Igor0000-0003-0555-6561
Wan, Yue0000-0002-2433-9637
Wilusz, Jeremy E.0000-0001-6929-8755
Wu, Mian0000-0002-2714-0500
Additional Information:Contributions. All authors researched data for the article, made substantial contributions to discussion of the content and reviewed and/or edited the manuscript before submission. J.S.M. drafted the manuscript. The authors declare no competing interests.
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230203-893794600.55
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:119047
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:03 Mar 2023 17:01
Last Modified:03 Mar 2023 17:01

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