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Promoter-proximal tethering elements regulate enhancer-promoter specificity in the Drosophila Antennapedia complex

Calhoun, Vincent C. and Stathopoulos, Angelike and Levine, Michael (2002) Promoter-proximal tethering elements regulate enhancer-promoter specificity in the Drosophila Antennapedia complex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99 (14). pp. 9243-9247. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC123125.

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Insulator DNAs and promoter competition regulate enhancer-promoter interactions within complex genetic loci. Here we provide evidence for a third mechanism: promoter-proximal tethering elements. The Scr-ftz region of the Antennapedia gene complex includes two known enhancers, AE1 and T1. AE1 selectively interacts with the ftz promoter to maintain pair-rule stripes of ftz expression during gastrulation and germ-band elongation. The T1 enhancer, located 3' of the ftz gene and approx 25 kb 5' of the Scr promoter, selectively activates Scr expression in the prothorax and posterior head segments. A variety of P element minigenes were examined in transgenic embryos to determine the basis for specific AE1-ftz and T1-Scr interactions. A 450-bp DNA fragment located approx 100 bp 5' of the Scr transcription start site is essential for T1-Scr interactions and can mediate long-range activation of a ftz/lacZ reporter gene when placed 5' of the ftz promoter. We suggest that the Scr450 fragment contains tethering elements that selectively recruit T1 to the Scr promoter. Tethering elements might regulate enhancer-promoter interactions at other complex genetic loci.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Stathopoulos, Angelike0000-0001-6597-2036
Additional Information:Copyright © 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences Contributed by Michael Levine, May 15, 2002. Published online before print July 1, 2002, 10.1073/pnas.142291299 We thank Robert Drewell for comments on the manuscript and Sumio Ohtsuki for technical assistance and advice. This work was funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (GM 34431).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHGM 34431
Issue or Number:14
PubMed Central ID:PMC123125
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:CALpnas02
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:1191
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:04 Jan 2006
Last Modified:02 Oct 2019 22:40

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