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High-gain and high-speed wavefront shaping through scattering media

Cheng, Zhongtao and Li, Chengmingyue and Khadria, Anjul and Zhang, Yide and Wang, Lihong V. (2023) High-gain and high-speed wavefront shaping through scattering media. Nature Photonics, 17 . pp. 299-305. ISSN 1749-4885. doi:10.1038/s41566-022-01142-4.

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Wavefront shaping (WFS) is emerging as a promising tool for controlling and focusing light in complex scattering media. The shaping system’s speed, the energy gain of the corrected wavefronts and the control degrees of freedom are the most important metrics for WFS, especially for highly scattering and dynamic samples. Despite recent advances, current methods suffer from trade-offs that limit satisfactory performance to only one or two of these metrics. Here we report a WFS technique that simultaneously achieves high speed, high energy gain and high control degrees of freedom. By combining photorefractive crystal-based analogue optical phase conjugation and stimulated emission light amplification, our technique achieves an energy gain approaching unity; that is, more than three orders of magnitude larger than conventional analogue optical phase conjugation. The response time of ~10 μs with about 106 control modes corresponds to an average mode time of about 0.01 ns per mode, which is more than 50 times quicker than some of the fastest WFS systems so far. We anticipate that this technique will be instrumental in overcoming the optical diffusion limit in photonics and translate WFS techniques to real-world applications.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access InCaltech News
Cheng, Zhongtao0000-0002-9862-2873
Li, Chengmingyue0000-0001-7609-1314
Khadria, Anjul0000-0002-9771-3650
Zhang, Yide0000-0002-9463-3970
Wang, Lihong V.0000-0001-9783-4383
Additional Information:We appreciate J. Ballard’s close reading of the paper and M. Cronin-Golomb’s discussions on the photorefractive theory. This work was financially supported by US National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R35 CA220436 (Outstanding Investigator Award) and R01 EB028277. Contributions. Z.C. and L.V.W. designed the study. Z.C. built the experimental system and performed the experiments. C.L. explored the amplification of scattered light at the early stage of the project. A.K. and Y.Z. prepared the living animal samples and participated in the in vivo experiments. L.V.W supervised the project. All of the authors wrote and revised the manuscript. Data availability. All data that support the findings of this study are available within the article and Supplementary Information, or available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Code availability. The codes used in this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Competing interests. L.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., CalPACT, LLC. and Union Photoacoustic Technologies, Ltd., which, however, did not support this work. The other authors declare no competing interests.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHR35 CA220436
NIHR01 EB028277
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230215-519459000.1
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:119285
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:15 Feb 2023 18:30
Last Modified:21 Apr 2023 19:18

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