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Ternary nucleation of H₂SO₄, NH₃, and H₂O in the atmosphere

Korhonen, P. and Kulmala, M. and Laaksonen, Ari and Viisanen, Y. and McGraw, R. and Seinfeld, J. H. (1999) Ternary nucleation of H₂SO₄, NH₃, and H₂O in the atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres, 104 (D21). pp. 26349-26353. ISSN 2169-897X. doi:10.1029/1999jd900784.

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Classical theory of binary homogeneous nucleation is extended to the ternary system H₂SO₄-NH₃-H₂O. For NH₃ mixing ratios exceeding about 1 ppt, the presence of NH₃ enhances the binary H₂SO₄-H₂O nucleation rate by several orders of magnitude. The Gibbs free energies of formation of the critical H₂SO₄-NH₃-H₂O cluster, as calculated by two independent approaches, are in substantial agreement. The finding that the H₂SO₄-NH₃-H₂O ternary nucleation rate is independent of relative humidity over a large range of H₂SO₄ concentrations has wide atmospheric consequences. The limiting component for ternary H₂SO₄-NH₃-H₂O nucleation is, as in the binary H₂SO₄-H₂O case, H₂SO₄; however, the H₂SO₄ concentration needed to achieve significant nucleation rates is several orders of magnitude below that required in the binary case.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Kulmala, M.0000-0003-3464-7825
Laaksonen, Ari0000-0002-1657-2383
Viisanen, Y.0000-0002-9660-3281
Seinfeld, J. H.0000-0003-1344-4068
Alternate Title:Ternary nucleation of H2SO4, NH3, and H2O in the atmosphere
Additional Information:This work was supported, in part, by Academy of Finland projects 43975 and 36594, by European Union project ENV 4-CT97-0405, NASA through interagency agreement W-18,429, and by National Science Foundation grant ATM-9614105.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Academy of Finland43975
Academy of Finland36594
European UnionENV 4-CT97-0405
Issue or Number:D21
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230222-175085400.7
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:119454
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Feb 2023 19:16
Last Modified:22 Feb 2023 19:16

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