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PHANGS–JWST First Results: The Dust Filament Network of NGC 628 and Its Relation to Star Formation Activity

Thilker, David A. and Lee, Janice C. and Deger, Sinan and Barnes, Ashley T. and Bigiel, Frank and Boquien, Médéric and Cao, Yixian and Chevance, Mélanie and Dale, Daniel A. and Egorov, Oleg V. and Glover, Simon C. O. and Grasha, Kathryn and Henshaw, Jonathan D. and Klessen, Ralf S. and Koch, Eric and Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik and Leroy, Adam K. and Lessing, Ryan A. and Meidt, Sharon E. and Pinna, Francesca and Querejeta, Miguel and Rosolowsky, Erik and Sandstrom, Karin M. and Schinnerer, Eva and Smith, Rowan J. and Watkins, Elizabeth J. and Williams, Thomas G. and Anand, Gagandeep S. and Belfiore, Francesco and Blanc, Guillermo A. and Chandar, Rupali and Congiu, Enrico and Emsellem, Eric and Groves, Brent and Kreckel, Kathryn and Larson, Kirsten L. and Liu, Daizhong and Pessa, Ismael and Whitmore, Bradley C. (2023) PHANGS–JWST First Results: The Dust Filament Network of NGC 628 and Its Relation to Star Formation Activity. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 944 (2). Art. No. L13. ISSN 2041-8205. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/acaeac.

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PHANGS–JWST mid-infrared (MIR) imaging of nearby spiral galaxies has revealed ubiquitous filaments of dust emission in intricate detail. We present a pilot study to systematically map the dust filament network (DFN) at multiple scales between 25 and 400 pc in NGC 628. MIRI images at 7.7, 10, 11.3, and 21 μm of NGC 628 are used to generate maps of the filaments in emission, while PHANGS–HST B-band imaging yields maps of dust attenuation features. We quantify the correspondence between filaments traced by MIR thermal continuum/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and filaments detected via extinction/scattering of visible light; the fraction of MIR flux contained in the DFN; and the fraction of H ii regions, young star clusters, and associations within the DFN. We examine the dependence of these quantities on the physical scale at which the DFN is extracted. With our highest-resolution DFN maps (25 pc filament width), we find that filaments in emission and attenuation are cospatial in 40% of sight lines, often exhibiting detailed morphological agreement; that ∼30% of the MIR flux is associated with the DFN; and that 75%–80% of the star formation in H ii regions and 60% of the mass in star clusters younger than 5 Myr are contained within the DFN. However, the DFN at this scale is anticorrelated with looser associations of stars younger than 5 Myr identified using PHANGS–HST near-UV imaging. We discuss the impact of these findings on studies of star formation and the interstellar medium, and the broad range of new investigations enabled by multiscale maps of the DFN.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Thilker, David A.0000-0002-8528-7340
Lee, Janice C.0000-0002-2278-9407
Deger, Sinan0000-0003-1943-723X
Barnes, Ashley T.0000-0003-0410-4504
Bigiel, Frank0000-0003-0166-9745
Boquien, Médéric0000-0003-0946-6176
Cao, Yixian0000-0001-5301-1326
Chevance, Mélanie0000-0002-5635-5180
Dale, Daniel A.0000-0002-5782-9093
Egorov, Oleg V.0000-0002-4755-118X
Glover, Simon C. O.0000-0001-6708-1317
Grasha, Kathryn0000-0002-3247-5321
Henshaw, Jonathan D.0000-0001-9656-7682
Klessen, Ralf S.0000-0002-0560-3172
Koch, Eric0000-0001-9605-780X
Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik0000-0002-8804-0212
Leroy, Adam K.0000-0002-2545-1700
Lessing, Ryan A.0000-0002-4089-1704
Meidt, Sharon E.0000-0002-6118-4048
Pinna, Francesca0000-0001-5965-3530
Querejeta, Miguel0000-0002-0472-1011
Rosolowsky, Erik0000-0002-5204-2259
Sandstrom, Karin M.0000-0002-4378-8534
Schinnerer, Eva0000-0002-3933-7677
Smith, Rowan J.0000-0002-0820-1814
Watkins, Elizabeth J.0000-0002-7365-5791
Williams, Thomas G.0000-0002-0012-2142
Anand, Gagandeep S.0000-0002-5259-2314
Belfiore, Francesco0000-0002-2545-5752
Blanc, Guillermo A.0000-0003-4218-3944
Chandar, Rupali0000-0003-0085-4623
Congiu, Enrico0000-0002-8549-4083
Emsellem, Eric0000-0002-6155-7166
Groves, Brent0000-0002-9768-0246
Kreckel, Kathryn0000-0001-6551-3091
Larson, Kirsten L.0000-0003-3917-6460
Liu, Daizhong0000-0001-9773-7479
Pessa, Ismael0000-0002-0873-5744
Whitmore, Bradley C.0000-0002-3784-7032
Additional Information:© 2023. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. This work was carried out as part of the PHANGS collaboration. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA/CSA JWST and Hubble Space Telescopes. The data were obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-03127 for JWST and NASA contract NAS 5-26555 for HST. The JWST observations are associated with program 2107, and those from HST with program 15454 Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 094.C-0623 (PI: Kreckel), 095.C-0473, 098.C-0484 (PI: Blanc), 1100.B-0651 (PHANGS–MUSE; PI: Schinnerer), as well as 094.B-0321 (MAGNUM; PI: Marconi), 099.B-0242, 0100.B-0116, 098.B-0551 (MAD; PI: Carollo) and 097.B-0640 (TIMER; PI: Gadotti). We acknowledge the usage of the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System. 43 D.A.T. acknowledges funding support from STScI via JWST-GO-02107.002-A. E.W.K. acknowledges support from the Smithsonian Institution as a Submillimeter Array (SMA) Fellow and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. J.M.D.K. gratefully acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program via the ERC Starting Grant MUSTANG (grant agreement number 714907). COOL Research DAO is a Decentralized Autonomous Organization supporting research in astrophysics aimed at uncovering our cosmic origins. E.J.W. acknowledges the funding provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation)—Project-ID 138713538—SFB 881 ("The Milky Way System," subproject P1). M.C. gratefully acknowledges funding from the DFG through an Emmy Noether Research Group (grant number CH2137/1-1). M.B. acknowledges support from FONDECYT regular grant 1211000 and by the ANID BASAL project FB210003. T.G.W. and E.S. acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 694343). E.R. acknowledges the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), funding reference number RGPIN-2022-03499. F.B. would like to acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No.726384/Empire) K.G. is supported by the Australian Research Council through the Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA) Fellowship DE220100766 funded by the Australian Government. K.G. is supported by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), through project number CE170100013. R.S.K. acknowledges financial support from the European Research Council via the ERC Synergy Grant "ECOGAL" (project ID 855130), from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via the Collaborative Research Center "The Milky Way System" (SFB 881—funding ID 138713538—subprojects A1, B1, B2, and B8) and from the Heidelberg Cluster of Excellence (EXC 2181-390900948) "STRUCTURES," funded by the German Excellence Strategy. R.S.K. also thanks the German Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action for funding in the project "MAINN" (funding ID 50OO2206). G.A.B. acknowledges the support from ANID Basal project FB210003. M.Q. acknowledges support from the Spanish grant PID2019-106027GA-C44, funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. E.C. acknowledges support from ANID Basal projects ACE210002 and FB210003. S.D. is supported by funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement no. 101018897 CosmicExplorer). K.K. and O.E. gratefully acknowledge funding from DFG in the form of an Emmy Noether Research Group (grant number KR4598/2-1, PI Kreckel). Facilities: HST - Hubble Space Telescope satellite, JWST - , VLT:Yepun - . Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013,2018), numpy (Harris et al. 2020), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), FilFinder (v1.7.2; Koch & Rosolowsky 2015)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-03127
NASANAS 5-26555
Smithsonian InstitutionUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)RGPIN-2022-03499
European Research Council (ERC)714907
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)138713538 - SFB 881
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)CH2137/1-1
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1211000
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)FB210003
European Research Council (ERC)694343
European Research Council (ERC)726384
Australian Research CouncilDE220100766
Australian Research CouncilCE170100013
European Research Council (ERC)855130
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)EXC 2181-390900948
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz (BMWK)50OO2206
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MCIU)PID2019-106027GA-C44
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)ACE210002
European Research Council (ERC)101018897
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)KR4598/2-1
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230223-726351000.3
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:119482
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:24 Feb 2023 03:49
Last Modified:24 Feb 2023 03:49

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