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Enhanced superconductivity in spin–orbit proximitized bilayer graphene

Zhang, Yiran and Polski, Robert and Thomson, Alex and Lantagne-Hurtubise, Étienne and Lewandowski, Cyprian and Zhou, Haoxin and Watanabe, Kenji and Taniguchi, Takashi and Alicea, Jason and Nadj-Perge, Stevan (2023) Enhanced superconductivity in spin–orbit proximitized bilayer graphene. Nature, 613 (7943). pp. 268-273. ISSN 0028-0836. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05446-x.

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In the presence of a large perpendicular electric field, Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) features several broken-symmetry metallic phases as well as magnetic-field-induced superconductivity1. The superconducting state is quite fragile, however, appearing only in a narrow window of density and with a maximum critical temperature T꜀ ≈ 30 mK. Here we show that placing monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe₂) on BLG promotes Cooper pairing to an extraordinary degree: superconductivity appears at zero magnetic field, exhibits an order of magnitude enhancement in T꜀ and occurs over a density range that is wider by a factor of eight. By mapping quantum oscillations in BLG–WSe₂ as a function of electric field and doping, we establish that superconductivity emerges throughout a region for which the normal state is polarized, with two out of four spin-valley flavours predominantly populated. In-plane magnetic field measurements further reveal that superconductivity in BLG–WSe₂ can exhibit striking dependence of the critical field on doping, with the Chandrasekhar–Clogston (Pauli) limit roughly obeyed on one end of the superconducting dome, yet sharply violated on the other. Moreover, the superconductivity arises only for perpendicular electric fields that push BLG hole wavefunctions towards WSe₂, indicating that proximity-induced (Ising) spin–orbit coupling plays a key role in stabilizing the pairing. Our results pave the way for engineering robust, highly tunable and ultra-clean graphene-based superconductors.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access InCaltech News
Zhang, Yiran0000-0002-8477-0074
Polski, Robert0000-0003-0887-8099
Thomson, Alex0000-0002-9938-5048
Lantagne-Hurtubise, Étienne0000-0003-0417-6452
Lewandowski, Cyprian0000-0002-6944-9805
Zhou, Haoxin0000-0003-1235-0035
Watanabe, Kenji0000-0003-3701-8119
Taniguchi, Takashi0000-0002-1467-3105
Alicea, Jason0000-0001-9979-3423
Nadj-Perge, Stevan0000-0002-2394-9070
Additional Information:We thank A. Young and A. Macdonald for fruitful discussions. This work has been primarily supported by NSF-CAREER award (no. DMR-1753306), and the Office of Naval Research (grant no. N142112635) and the Army Research Office (grant award no. W911NF17-1-0323). Nanofabrication efforts have been in part supported by the Department of Energy DOE-QIS program (DE-SC0019166). S.N.-P. acknowledges support from the Sloan Foundation (grant no. FG-2020-13716). J.A. and S.N.-P. also acknowledge the support of the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant no. GBMF1250. C.L. and E.L.-H. acknowledge support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation’s EPiQS Initiative, grant no. GBMF8682. Contributions. Y.Z. and S.N.-P. designed the experiment. Y.Z., R.P. and H.Z. performed the measurements, fabricated the devices and analysed the data. A.T., E.L.-H. and C.L. developed the theoretical models and performed the calculations supervised by J.A. K.W. and T.T. provided the hBN crystals. S.N.-P. supervised the project. Y.Z., A.T., E.L.-H., C.L., H.Z., R.P., J.A. and S.N.-P. wrote the manuscript with the input of other authors. Data availability. The data shown in the main figures are available from the CaltechDATA at Code availability. The code used to reproduce data plots is available from the CaltechDATA at The code used for the modelling is available upon reasonable request. The authors declare no competing interests.
Group:Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kavli Nanoscience Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N142112635
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF17-1-0323
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0019166
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationFG-2020-13716
Institute for Quantum Information and Matter (IQIM)UNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF1250
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF8682
Issue or Number:7943
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230223-726426000.4
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:119483
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:24 Feb 2023 03:20
Last Modified:24 Feb 2023 03:20

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