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Nonlinearities in Black Hole Ringdowns

Mitman, Keefe and Lagos, Macarena and Stein, Leo C. and Ma, Sizheng and Hui, Lam and Chen, Yanbei and Deppe, Nils and Hébert, François and Kidder, Lawrence E. and Moxon, Jordan and Scheel, Mark A. and Teukolsky, Saul A. and Throwe, William and Vu, Nils L. (2023) Nonlinearities in Black Hole Ringdowns. Physical Review Letters, 130 (8). Art. No. 081402. ISSN 0031-9007. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.130.081402.

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The gravitational wave strain emitted by a perturbed black hole (BH) ringing down is typically modeled analytically using first-order BH perturbation theory. In this Letter we show that second-order effects are necessary for modeling ringdowns from BH merger simulations. Focusing on the strain's (ℓ,m)=(4,4) angular harmonic, we show the presence of a quadratic effect across a range of binary BH mass ratios that agrees with theoretical expectations. We find that the quadratic (4,4) mode amplitude exhibits quadratic scaling with the fundamental (2,2) mode -- its parent mode. The nonlinear mode's amplitude is comparable to or even larger than that of the linear (4,4) modes. Therefore correctly modeling ringdown -- improving mismatches by an order of magnitude -- requires the inclusion of nonlinear effects.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemDiscussion Paper InPhysics : Viewpoint InCaltech News
Mitman, Keefe0000-0003-0276-3856
Lagos, Macarena0000-0003-0234-9970
Stein, Leo C.0000-0001-7559-9597
Ma, Sizheng0000-0002-4645-453X
Chen, Yanbei0000-0002-9730-9463
Deppe, Nils0000-0003-4557-4115
Hébert, François0000-0001-9009-6955
Kidder, Lawrence E.0000-0001-5392-7342
Moxon, Jordan0000-0001-9891-8677
Scheel, Mark A.0000-0001-6656-9134
Teukolsky, Saul A.0000-0001-9765-4526
Throwe, William0000-0001-5059-4378
Vu, Nils L.0000-0002-5767-3949
Additional Information:We thank Max Isi and the Flatiron Institute for fostering discourse, and Vishal Baibhav, Emanuele Berti, Mark Cheung, Matt Giesler, Scott Hughes, and Max Isi for valuable conversations. Computations for this work were performed with the Wheeler cluster at Caltech. This work was supported in part by the Sherman Fairchild Foundation and by NSF Grants No. PHY-2011961, No. PHY-2011968, and No. OAC-1931266 at Caltech, as well as NSF Grants No. PHY-1912081, No. PHY-2207342, and No. OAC-1931280 at Cornell. The work of L. C. S. was partially supported by NSF CAREER Grant No. PHY-2047382. M. L. was funded by the Innovative Theoretical Cosmology Fellowship at Columbia University. L. H. was funded by the DOE DE-SC0011941 and a Simons Fellowship in Theoretical Physics. M. L. and L. C. S. thank the Benasque Science Center and the organizers of the 2022 workshop “New frontiers in strong gravity,” where some of this work was performed; and M. L. acknowledges NSF Grant No. PHY-1759835 for supporting travel to this workshop.
Group:Astronomy Department, TAPIR
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Sherman Fairchild FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Columbia UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0011941
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:8
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230223-726432000.5
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:119484
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:23 Feb 2023 22:09
Last Modified:23 Feb 2023 22:09

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