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Real-time lineage analysis reveals oriented cell divisions associated with morphogenesis at the shoot apex of Arabidopsis thaliana

Reddy, G. Venugopala and Heisler, Marcus G. and Ehrhardt, David W. and Meyerowitz, Elliot M. (2004) Real-time lineage analysis reveals oriented cell divisions associated with morphogenesis at the shoot apex of Arabidopsis thaliana. Development, 131 (17). pp. 4225-4237. ISSN 0950-1991. doi:10.1242/dev.01261.

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Precise knowledge of spatial and temporal patterns of cell division, including number and orientation of divisions, and knowledge of cell expansion, is central to understanding morphogenesis. Our current knowledge of cell division patterns during plant and animal morphogenesis is largely deduced from analysis of clonal shapes and sizes. But such an analysis can reveal only the number, not the orientation or exact rate, of cell divisions. In this study, we have analyzed growth in real time by monitoring individual cell divisions in the shoot apical meristems (SAMs) of Arabidopsis thaliana. The live imaging technique has led to the development of a spatial and temporal map of cell division patterns. We have integrated cell behavior over time to visualize growth. Our analysis reveals temporal variation in mitotic activity and the cell division is coordinated across clonally distinct layers of cells. Temporal variation in mitotic activity is not correlated to the estimated plastochron length and diurnal rhythms. Cell division rates vary across the SAM surface. Cells in the peripheral zone (PZ) divide at a faster rate than in the central zone (CZ). Cell division rates in the CZ are relatively heterogeneous when compared with PZ cells. We have analyzed the cell behavior associated with flower primordium development starting from a stage at which the future flower comprises four cells in the L1 epidermal layer. Primordium development is a sequential process linked to distinct cellular behavior. Oriented cell divisions, in primordial progenitors and in cells located proximal to them, are associated with initial primordial outgrowth. The oriented cell divisions are followed by a rapid burst of cell expansion and cell division, which transforms a flower primordium into a three-dimensional flower bud. Distinct lack of cell expansion is seen in a narrow band of cells, which forms the boundary region between developing flower bud and the SAM. We discuss these results in the context of SAM morphogenesis.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Heisler, Marcus G.0000-0001-5644-8398
Meyerowitz, Elliot M.0000-0003-4798-5153
Additional Information:Published by The Company of Biologists 2004. Accepted 11 May 2004. First published online 27 July 2004. We thank Peter Doerner for sharing the cyclinB1;1:GFP line prior to publication and Jim Haseloff and Sarah Hodge for the 35S::H2B:mYFP construct and Joel Griffitts for making the 35S::YFP29-1. We thank members of Meyerowitz lab for useful discussions and comments on the manuscript. We thank members of Biological Imaging Center (BIC), Caltech: especially Scott Fraser, Andrew Ewald and Hayong Lim for advice and interest in this study. We are grateful to Henrik Jönsson for his help in automating the image registration process. GVR is a fellow of the Jane Coffin Childs memorial fund for medical research. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants IBN-0211670 and EF-0330786.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Live imaging, Lineage analysis, Shoot apical meristem
Issue or Number:17
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:REDdev04
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Official Citation:Real-time lineage analysis reveals oriented cell divisions associated with morphogenesis at the shoot apex of Arabidopsis thaliana G. Venugopala Reddy, Marcus G. Heisler, David W. Ehrhardt, Elliot M. Meyerowitz Development 2004 131: 4225-4237; doi: 10.1242/dev.01261
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:12023
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:20 Oct 2008 17:56
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 22:25

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