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A Spitzer Space Telescope study of SN 2003gd: Still no direct evidence that core-collapse supernovae are major dust factories

Meikle, W. P. S. and Mattila, S. and Pastorello, A. and Gerardy, C. L. and Kotak, R. and Sollerman, J. and Van Dyk, S. D. and Farrah, D. and Filippenko, A. V. and Höflich, P. and Lundqvist, P. and Pozzo, M. and Wheeler, J. C. (2007) A Spitzer Space Telescope study of SN 2003gd: Still no direct evidence that core-collapse supernovae are major dust factories. Astrophysical Journal, 665 (1). pp. 608-617. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present a new, detailed analysis of late-time mid-infrared observations of the Type II-P supernova (SN) 2003gd. At about 16 months after the explosion, the mid-IR flux is consistent with emission from 4 x 10^(-5) M☉ of newly condensed dust in the ejecta. At 22 months emission from pointlike sources close to the SN position was detected at 8 and 24 μm. By 42 months the 24 μm flux had faded. Considerations of luminosity and source size rule out the ejecta of SN 2003gd as the main origin of the emission at 22 months. A possible alternative explanation for the emission at this later epoch is an IR echo from preexisting circumstellar or interstellar dust. We conclude that, contrary to the claim of Sugerman and coworkers, the mid-IR emission from SN 2003gd does not support the presence of 0.02 M☉ of newly formed dust in the ejecta. There is, as yet, no direct evidence that core-collapse supernovae are major dust factories.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Mattila, S.0000-0001-7497-2994
Kotak, R.0000-0001-5455-3653
Sollerman, J.0000-0003-1546-6615
Van Dyk, S. D.0000-0001-9038-9950
Farrah, D.0000-0003-1748-2010
Filippenko, A. V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Lundqvist, P.0000-0002-3664-8082
Additional Information:© 2007 American Astronomical Society. Received 2007 February 27; accepted 2007 May 9. We thank the referee for valuable comments and suggestions. We are grateful to B. Sugerman and the SEEDS team for making their proprietary data available to us. We thank J. Scalo and L. Pan for helpful discussions. We also thank M. Regan for providing details about the SINGS-processed images, and B. Ercolano and M. Barlow for discussions about dust/IR emission models. S.M. was supported by funds from the Participating Organisations of EURYI and the EC Sixth Framework Programme. C.L.G. was supported in part by PPARC grant PPA/G/S/2003/00040. R.K. was supported in part by EU RTN grant HPRN-CT-2002-00303. M.P. was supported by PPARC Grant PPA/G/S/2001/00512. J.C.W. and A.V.F. were supported in part by NSF grants AST 04-06740 and AST 06-07485, respectively. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award (3248) issued by JPL/Caltech.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC)PPA/G/S/2003/00040
Marie Curie FellowshipHPRN-CT-2002-00303
Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC)PPA/G/S/2001/00512
NSFAST 04-06740
NSFAST 04-07485
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (SN 2003gd)
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:MEIapj07
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:12087
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:27 Oct 2008 18:30
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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