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Earthquake source characteristics from dynamic rupture with constrained stochastic fault stress

Ripperger, J. and Ampuero, J.-P. and Mai, P. M. and Giardini, D. (2007) Earthquake source characteristics from dynamic rupture with constrained stochastic fault stress. Journal of Geophysical Research B, 112 (B4). Art. No. B04311. ISSN 0148-0227. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:RIPjgrb07

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Abstract

One of the challenging tasks in predicting near-source ground motion for future earthquakes is to anticipate the spatiotemporal evolution of the rupture process. The final size of an event but also its temporal properties (propagation velocity, slip velocity) depend on the distribution of shear stress on the fault plane. Though these incipient stresses are not known for future earthquakes, they might be sufficiently well characterized in a stochastic sense. We examine the evolution of dynamic rupture in numerical models of a fault subjected to heterogeneous stress fields with varying statistical properties. By exploring the parameter space of the stochastic stress characterization for a large number of random realizations we relate generalized properties of the resulting events to the stochastic stress parameters. The nucleation zone of the simulated earthquake ruptures in general has a complex shape, but its average size is found to be independent of the stress field parameterization and is determined only by the material parameters and the friction law. Furthermore, we observe a sharp transition in event size from small to system-wide events, governed mainly by the standard deviation of the stress field. A simplified model based on fracture mechanics is able to explain this transition. Finally, we find that the macroscopic rupture parameters ( e. g., moment, moment rate, seismic energy) of our catalog of model quakes are generally consistent with observational data.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JB004515DOIArticle
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2006JB004515/abstractPublisherUNSPECIFIED
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ampuero, J.-P.0000-0002-4827-7987
Additional Information:© 2007 American Geophysical Union. Received 18 May 2006; revised 7 November 2006; accepted 29 November 2006; published 27 April 2007. We thank S. Ide and R. Archuleta for their detailed and constructive reviews. They also provided challenging comments, some of which require future improvements and research beyond the present paper. We also wish to thank the Associate Editor J. Townend for carefully inspecting the manuscript and providing additional suggestions for improvement. We thank E. Dunham for providing us his spectral boundary integral code ‘‘MDSBI.’’ J.-P. Ampuero is supported by SPICE, a Marie Curie Research Training Network in the 6th Framework Program of the European Commission. This is contribution 1448 of the Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Commission, Marie Curie Research Trianing NetworkUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:1979 Imperial-Valley; strong-motion data; high-frequency radiation; slip dependent friction; strong ground motion; 1992 Landers; temporal distribution; shear instability; California; energy
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
ETH Zurich, Institute of Geophysics1448
Issue or Number:B4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:RIPjgrb07
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:RIPjgrb07
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:13480
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Apr 2009 17:20
Last Modified:17 Sep 2015 22:45

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