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Combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput photopotential and photocurrent screening of mixed-metal oxides for photoelectrochemical water splitting

Katz, Jordan E. and Gingrich, Todd R. and Santori, Elizabeth A. and Lewis, Nathan S. (2009) Combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput photopotential and photocurrent screening of mixed-metal oxides for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Energy and Environmental Science, 2 (1). pp. 103-112. ISSN 1754-5692. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090415-091958867

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Abstract

A high-throughput method has been developed using a commercial piezoelectric inkjet printer for synthesis and characterization of mixed-metal oxide photoelectrode materials for water splitting. The printer was used to deposit metal nitrate solutions onto a conductive glass substrate. The deposited metal nitrate solutions were then pyrolyzed to yield mixed-metal oxides that contained up to eight distinct metals. The stoichiometry of the metal oxides was controlled quantitatively, allowing for the creation of vast libraries of novel materials. Automated methods were developed to measure the open-circuit potentials (Eoc), short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc), and current density vs. applied potential (J–E) behavior under visible light irradiation. The high-throughput measurement of Eoc is particularly significant because open-circuit potential measurements allow the interfacial energetics to be probed regardless of whether the band edges of the materials of concern are above, close to, or below the values needed to sustain water electrolysis under standard conditions. The Eoc measurements allow high-throughput compilation of a suite of data that can be associated with the composition of the various materials in the library, to thereby aid in the development of additional screens and to form a basis for development of theoretical guidance in the prediction of additional potentially promising photoelectrode compositions.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b812177jDOIUNSPECIFIED
http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/EE/article.asp?doi=b812177jPublisherUNSPECIFIED
Additional Information:© 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Received 16th July 2008, Accepted 28th August 2008. First published as an Advance Article on the web 6th November 2008. We acknowledge the Stanford Global Energy and Climate Project, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative, for support of this work. We also gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael Woodhouse and Prof. Bruce Parkinson at Colorado State University, and Dr Bruce Brunschwig at Caltech, for numerous valuable discussions. T.R.G. acknowledges financial support from the Carl and Shirley Larson SURF Fellowship and from an Amgen Scholars Fellowship.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Carl and Shirley Larson SURF FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Amgen Scholars FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:photoassisted electrolysis; electrochemical synthesis; energy-conversion; photoelectrolysis; semiconductor; systems; cells
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20090415-091958867
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090415-091958867
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:13979
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Apr 2009 21:45
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 00:46

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