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Temperature Dependence of Blue Phosphorescent Cyclometalated Ir(III) Complexes

Sajoto, Tissa and Djurovich, Peter I. and Tamayo, Arnold B. and Oxgaard, Jonas and Goddard, William A., III and Thompson, Mark E. (2009) Temperature Dependence of Blue Phosphorescent Cyclometalated Ir(III) Complexes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131 (28). pp. 9813-9822. ISSN 0002-7863. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090808-142501364

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Abstract

The photophysical properties for a series of facial (fac) cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (fac-Ir(C^N)_3 (C^N = 2-phenylpyridyl (ppy), 2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl (F2ppy), 1-phenylpyrazolyl (ppz), 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyrazolyl) (F2ppz), and 1-(2-(9,9′-dimethylfluorenyl))pyrazolyl (flz)), fac-Ir(C^N)_2(C^N′) (C^N = ppz or F2ppz and C^N′ = ppy or F2ppy), and fac-Ir(CC′)_3 (C^C′ = 1-phenyl-3-methylbenzimidazolyl (pmb)) have been studied in dilute 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF) solution in a temperature range of 77−378 K. Photoluminescent quantum yields (Φ) for the 10 compounds at room temperature vary between near zero and unity, whereas all emit with high efficiency at low temperature (77 K). The quantum yield for fac-Ir(ppy)_3 (Φ = 0.97) is temperature-independent. For the other complexes, the temperature-dependent data indicates that the luminescent efficiency is primarily determined by thermal deactivation to a nonradiative state. Activation energies and rate constants for both radiative and nonradiative processes were obtained using a Boltzmann analysis of the temperature-dependent luminescent decay data. Activation energies to the nonradiative state are found to range between 1600 and 4800 cm^−1. The pre-exponential factors for deactivation are large for complexes with C^N ligands (1011−1013 s^−1) and significantly smaller for fac-Ir(pmb)_3 (109 s^−1). The kinetic parameters for decay and results from density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the triplet state are consistent with a nonradiative process involving Ir−N (Ir−C for fac-Ir(pmb)_3) bond rupture leading to a five-coordinate species that has triplet metal-centered (^3MC) character. Linear correlations are observed between the activation energy and the energy difference calculated for the emissive and ^3MC states. The energy level for the ^3MC state is estimated to lie between 21700 and 24000 cm^−1 for the fac-Ir(C^N)_3 complexes and at 28000 cm^−1 for fac-Ir(pmb)_3.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja903317wDOIUNSPECIFIED
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/ja903317wPublisherUNSPECIFIED
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Goddard, William A., III0000-0003-0097-5716
Thompson, Mark E.0000-0002-7764-4096
Additional Information:Copyright © 2009 American Chemical Society. Received April 24, 2009; Publication Date (Web): June 18, 2009. We would like to acknowledge Universal Display Corporation and Department of Energy for their financial support of this work. We also thank W. J. Finkenzeller and Professor H. Yersin (U. Regensburg) and Professor K. Dedeian (Delaware Valley College) for helpful discussions. Supporting Information Plots for the temperature dependence of emission lifetime for 2, 4, 6, and 10, tables of selected metrical parameters calculated for the triplet states of 1−10, xyz coordinates for the calculated structures of 1−10. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.
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Universal Display CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Department of EnergyUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:28
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20090808-142501364
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090808-142501364
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:14886
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:01 Sep 2009 23:15
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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