A Caltech Library Service

Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final report. Volume VII: Module encapsulation

Cuddihy, E. and Coulbert, C. and Gupta, A. and Liang, R. (1986) Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final report. Volume VII: Module encapsulation. JPL Publication, 86-31, volume VII. NASA , Springfield, VA.

[img] PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development. The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20-year (later increased to 30-year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the FSA Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized in this report include the development of low-cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low-cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long-term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that will meet the FSA cost and performance goals. Thirty-year module life expectancies are anticipated based on accelerated stress testing results and on extrapolation of real-time field exposures in excess of 9 years.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Technical Report)
Additional Information:5101-289 Flat-Plate Solar Array Project DOE/JPL-1 012-125 Distribution Category UC-63b Authorities in the field were used throughout this program as consultants to provide critiques, participate in critical technology reviews, and address specific technical problems. Otto Vogi of the University of Massachusetts, and James Guillet of the University of Toronto were consultants in photodegradation and its control. Jack Koenig of Case Western Reserve University, James Boerio of the University of Cincinnati, Edwin Plueddemann of Dow Corning in Midland, Michigan, and Wolfgang Knauss of the California Institute of Technology consulted in the area of interfacial bonding. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory staff members were involved in laboratory research, materials technology development, process and design analyses, and the technical management of contracts. The following engineers contributed to the encapsulation technology program: Clifford Coulbert (Task Manager), Andre Amy, Ed Cuddihy, Ami Gupta, John Repar, Ranty Liang, Dan Coulter, Jovan Moacanin, Peter Frickland, Keri ada, William Carroll (deceased), Frank Bouquet, Robert Holtze, Hugh Maxwell, Mohammad Sarbolouki, John Garba, and Harold Marsh. This document reports on work done under NASA Task RE-152, Amendment 419, DOE/NASA IAA No. DE-A101-85CE89008. Prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, for the U.S. Department of Energy through an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The JPL Flat-Plate Solar Array Project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and is part of the National Photovoltaics Program to initiate a major effort toward the development of cost-competitive solar arrays.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Series Name:JPL Publication
Issue or Number:86-31, volume VII
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:JPLpub86-31-volumeVII
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:15043
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:19 Aug 2009 18:50
Last Modified:11 Jan 2022 23:38

Repository Staff Only: item control page