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A study of the timing properties of position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes

Wu, Yibao and Ng, Thomas S. C. and Yang, Yongfeng and Shah, Kanai and Farrell, Richard and Cherry, Simon R. (2009) A study of the timing properties of position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 54 (17). pp. 5155-5172. ISSN 0031-9155.

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Abstract. In this paper, we study position-dependent timing shifts and timing resolution in position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) and their effects on the coincidence window used in positron emission tomography (PET) systems using these devices. There is a delay in PSAPD signals that increases as the excitation position moves from the corner to the center of the device and the timing resolution concurrently worsens. The difference in timing between the center and the corner can be up to 30.7 ns for a 14 × 14 mm^2 area PSAPD. This means that a PSAPD-based PET system could require a very wide coincidence timing window (>60 ns) if this effect is not corrected, although the individual crystal pairs still have full-width half-maximum (FWHM) timing resolutions better than 7.4 ns. In addition to characterizing the timing properties of PSAPDs, two correction methods were developed and applied to data from a pair of PSAPD detectors. These two timing offset corrections reduced the timing shift of a crystal pair from 52.4 ns to 9.7 ns or 1.3 ns, improved the FWHM timing resolution of the detector pair from 24.6 ns to 9.5 ns or 6.0 ns and reduced the timing window (sufficient to cover at least twice the FWHM for all crystal pairs) from 65.1 ns to 22.0 ns or 15.2 ns, respectively. A two-step timing alignment method is proposed for a PET system consisting of multiple PSAPDs. Lastly, the effect of PSAPD size on the timing performance was also evaluated.

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Additional Information:Copyright © Institute of Physics and IOP Publishing Limited 2009. Received 3 April 2009, in final form 9 June 2009. Published 11 August 2009. Print publication: Issue 17 (7 September 2009). The authors thank Dr Ciprian Catana from Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaing, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, for useful discussions; Dr Guobao Wang from the Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, for useful discussions, and RMD Inc. for providing the PSAPDs. This work was supported by NIH under grants R01 EB000993, R01 EB006109 and R44 NS055377.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHR01 EB000993
NIHR01 EB006109
NIHR44 NS055377
Issue or Number:17
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20090828-231032132
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Official Citation:A study of the timing properties of position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes Yibao Wu, Thomas S C Ng, Yongfeng Yang, Kanai Shah, Richard Farrell and Simon R Cherry 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 5155-5172 doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/54/17/006
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:15441
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:15 Sep 2009 16:11
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 00:57

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