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Stacked Search for Gravitational Waves from the 2006 SGR 1900+14 Storm

Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, Rana X. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglià, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Yanbei and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daubert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Díaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J.-C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and González, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lück, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menéndez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Müller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perreca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Punken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Röver, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Rüdiger, A. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaría, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thüring, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and van den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Mühlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and Weinstein, Alan J. (2009) Stacked Search for Gravitational Waves from the 2006 SGR 1900+14 Storm. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 701 (2). L68-L74. ISSN 2041-8205. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/L68.

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We present the results of a LIGO search for short-duration gravitational waves (GWs) associated with the 2006 March 29 SGR 1900+14 storm. A new search method is used, "stacking" the GW data around the times of individual soft-gamma bursts in the storm to enhance sensitivity for models in which multiple bursts are accompanied by GW emission. We assume that variation in the time difference between burst electromagnetic emission and potential burst GW emission is small relative to the GW signal duration, and we time-align GW excess power time-frequency tilings containing individual burst triggers to their corresponding electromagnetic emissions. We use two GW emission models in our search: a fluence-weighted model and a flat (unweighted) model for the most electromagnetically energetic bursts. We find no evidence of GWs associated with either model. Model-dependent GW strain, isotropic GW emission energy E_(GW), and γ ≡ E_(GW)/E_(EM) upper limits are estimated using a variety of assumed waveforms. The stacking method allows us to set the most stringent model-dependent limits on transient GW strain published to date. We find E_(GW) upper limit estimates (at a nominal distance of 10 kpc) of between 2 × 10^(45) erg and 6 × 10^(50) erg depending on the waveform type. These limits are an order of magnitude lower than upper limits published previously for this storm and overlap with the range of electromagnetic energies emitted in soft gamma repeater (SGR) giant flares.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Adhikari, Rana X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Ajith, P.0000-0001-7519-2439
Bartos, I.0000-0001-5607-3637
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biswas, R.0000-0002-5741-7195
Blackburn, J. K.0000-0002-3838-2986
Bose, S.0000-0002-3445-4479
Brady, P. R.0000-0002-4611-9387
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Brown, D. A.0000-0002-9180-5765
Byer, R. L.0000-0003-1331-0318
Cannon, K. C.0000-0003-4068-6572
Caudill, S.0000-0002-8927-6673
Chen, Yanbei0000-0002-9730-9463
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Freise, A.0000-0001-6586-9901
Harms, J.0000-0002-7332-9806
Kalogera, V.0000-0001-9236-5469
Kanner, J.0000-0001-8115-0577
Kissel, J. S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Kozak, D.0000-0003-3118-8950
Mandel, I.0000-0002-6134-8946
Mueller, G.0000-0001-8010-742X
Nishizawa, A.0000-0003-3562-0990
Ottaway, D. J.0000-0001-6794-1591
Quetschke, V.0000-0002-8012-4868
Reed, C. M.0000-0002-7157-3645
Schnabel, R.0000-0003-2896-4218
Stein, L. C.0000-0001-7559-9597
Tanner, D. B.0000-0003-1940-4710
Vallisneri, M.0000-0002-4162-0033
Vecchio, A.0000-0002-6254-1617
Whiting, B. F.0000-0002-8501-8669
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zhao, C.0000-0001-5825-2401
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Weinstein, Alan J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Additional Information:© 2009 American Astronomical Society. Print publication: Issue 2 (2009 August 20); received 2009 May 19; accepted for publication 2009 July 17; published 2009 July 30. The authors are grateful to the Swift team for the SGR 1900+14 storm data. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society, and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the research by these agencies and by the Australian Research Council, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Italy, the Spanish Ministerio de Educaci´on y Ciencia, the Conselleria d’Economia Hisenda i Innovaci´o of the Govern de les Illes Balears, the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Carnegie Trust, the Leverhulme Trust, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Research Corporation, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. This Letter is LIGO-P0900024.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Economia Hisenda i Innovació of the Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:gamma rays: bursts; gravitational waves; pulsars: individual (SGR 1900+14); stars: neutron
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20090901-112329874
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Official Citation:Stacked Search for Gravitational Waves from the 2006 SGR 1900+14 Storm B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, P. Ajith, B. Allen, G. Allen, R. S. Amin, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, M. A. Arain, M. Araya, H. Armandula, P. Armor, Y. Aso, S. Aston, P. Aufmuth, C. Aulbert, S. Babak, P. Baker, S. Ballmer, C. Barker, D. Barker, B. Barr, P. Barriga, L. Barsotti, M. A. Barton, I. Bartos, R. Bassiri, M. Bastarrika, B. Behnke, M. Benacquista, J. Betzwieser, P. T. Beyersdorf, I. A. Bilenko, G. Billingsley, R. Biswas, E. Black, J. K. Blackburn, L. Blackburn, D. Blair, B. Bland, T. P. Bodiya, L. Bogue, R. Bork, V. Boschi, S. Bose, P. R. Brady, V. B. Braginsky, J. E. Brau, D. O. Bridges, M. Brinkmann, A. F. Brooks, D. A. Brown, A. Brummit, G. Brunet, A. Bullington, A. Buonanno, O. Burmeister, R. L. Byer, L. Cadonati, J. B. Camp, J. Cannizzo, K. C. Cannon, J. Cao, L. Cardenas, S. Caride, G. Castaldi, S. Caudill, M. Cavaglià, C. Cepeda, T. Chalermsongsak, E. Chalkley, P. Charlton, S. Chatterji, S. Chelkowski, Y. Chen, N. Christensen, C. T. Y. Chung, D. Clark, J. Clark, J. H. Clayton, T. Cokelaer, C. N. Colacino, R. Conte, D. Cook, T. R. C. Corbitt, N. Cornish, D. Coward, D. C. Coyne, J. D. E. Creighton, T. D. Creighton, A. M. Cruise, R. M. Culter, A. Cumming, L. Cunningham, S. L. Danilishin, K. Danzmann, B. Daudert, G. Davies, E. J. Daw, D. DeBra, J. Degallaix, V. Dergachev, S. Desai, R. DeSalvo, S. Dhurandhar, M. Díaz, A. Dietz, F. Donovan, K. L. Dooley, E. E. Doomes, R. W. P. Drever, J. Dueck, I. Duke, J.-C. Dumas, J. G. Dwyer, C. Echols, M. Edgar, A. Effler, P. Ehrens, E. Espinoza, T. Etzel, M. Evans, T. Evans, S. Fairhurst, Y. Faltas, Y. Fan, D. Fazi, H. Fehrmann, L. S. Finn, K. Flasch, S. Foley, C. Forrest, N. Fotopoulos, A. Franzen, M. Frede, M. Frei, Z. Frei, A. Freise, R. Frey, T. Fricke, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, M. Fyffe, V. Galdi, J. A. Garofoli, I. Gholami, J. A. Giaime, S. Giampanis, K. D. Giardina, K. Goda, E. Goetz, L. M. Goggin, G. González, M. L. Gorodetsky, S. Goßler, R. Gouaty, A. Grant, S. Gras, C. Gray, M. Gray, R. J. S. Greenhalgh, A. M. Gretarsson, F. Grimaldi, R. Grosso, H. Grote, S. Grunewald, M. Guenther, E. K. Gustafson, R. Gustafson, B. Hage, J. M. Hallam, D. Hammer, G. D. Hammond, C. Hanna, J. Hanson, J. Harms, G. M. Harry, I. W. Harry, E. D. Harstad, K. Haughian, K. Hayama, J. Heefner, I. S. Heng, A. Heptonstall, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, E. Hirose, D. Hoak, K. A. Hodge, K. Holt, D. J. Hosken, J. Hough, D. Hoyland, B. Hughey, S. H. Huttner, D. R. Ingram, T. Isogai, M. Ito, A. Ivanov, B. Johnson, W. W. Johnson, D. I. Jones, G. Jones, R. Jones, L. Ju, P. Kalmus, V. Kalogera, S. Kandhasamy, J. Kanner, D. Kasprzyk, E. Katsavounidis, K. Kawabe, S. Kawamura, F. Kawazoe, W. Kells, D. G. Keppel, A. Khalaidovski, F. Y. Khalili, R. Khan, E. Khazanov, P. King, J. S. Kissel, S. Klimenko, K. Kokeyama, V. Kondrashov, R. Kopparapu, S. Koranda, D. Kozak, B. Krishnan, R. Kumar, P. Kwee, P. K. Lam, M. Landry, B. Lantz, A. Lazzarini, H. Lei, M. Lei, N. Leindecker, I. Leonor, C. Li, H. Lin, P. E. Lindquist, T. B. Littenberg, N. A. Lockerbie, D. Lodhia, M. Longo, M. Lormand, P. Lu, M. Lubinski, A. Lucianetti, H. Lück, B. Machenschalk, M. MacInnis, M. Mageswaran, K. Mailand, I. Mandel, V. Mandic, S. Márka, Z. Márka, A. Markosyan, J. Markowitz, E. Maros, I. W. Martin, R. M. Martin, J. N. Marx, K. Mason, F. Matichard, L. Matone, R. A. Matzner, N. Mavalvala, R. McCarthy, D. E. McClelland, S. C. McGuire, M. McHugh, G. McIntyre, D. J. A. McKechan, K. McKenzie, M. Mehmet, A. Melatos, A. C. Melissinos, D. F. Menéndez, G. Mendell, R. A. Mercer, S. Meshkov, C. Messenger, M. S. Meyer, J. Miller, J. Minelli, Y. Mino, V. P. Mitrofanov, G. Mitselmakher, R. Mittleman, O. Miyakawa, B. Moe, S. D. Mohanty, S. R. P. Mohapatra, G. Moreno, T. Morioka, K. Mors, K. Mossavi, C. MowLowry, G. Mueller, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Muhammad, S. Mukherjee, H. Mukhopadhyay, A. Mullavey, J. Munch, P. G. Murray, E. Myers, J. Myers, T. Nash, J. Nelson, G. Newton, A. Nishizawa, K. Numata, J. O'Dell, B. O'Reilly, R. O'Shaughnessy, E. Ochsner, G. H. Ogin, D. J. Ottaway, R. S. Ottens, H. Overmier, B. J. Owen, Y. Pan, C. Pankow, M. A. Papa, V. Parameshwaraiah, P. Patel, M. Pedraza, S. Penn, A. Perreca, V. Pierro, I. M. Pinto, M. Pitkin, H. J. Pletsch, M. V. Plissi, F. Postiglione, M. Principe, R. Prix, L. Prokhorov, O. Punken, V. Quetschke, F. J. Raab, D. S. Rabeling, H. Radkins, P. Raffai, Z. Raics, N. Rainer, M. Rakhmanov, V. Raymond, C. M. Reed, T. Reed, H. Rehbein, S. Reid, D. H. Reitze, R. Riesen, K. Riles, B. Rivera, P. Roberts, N. A. Robertson, C. Robinson, E. L. Robinson, S. Roddy, C. Röver, J. Rollins, J. D. Romano, J. H. Romie, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, P. Russell, K. Ryan, S. Sakata, L. Sancho de la Jordana, V. Sandberg, V. Sannibale, L. Santamaría, S. Saraf, P. Sarin, B. S. Sathyaprakash, S. Sato, M. Satterthwaite, P. R. Saulson, R. Savage, P. Savov, M. Scanlan, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, R. Schofield, B. Schulz, B. F. Schutz, P. Schwinberg, J. Scott, S. M. Scott, A. C. Searle, B. Sears, F. Seifert, D. Sellers, A. S. Sengupta, A. Sergeev, B. Shapiro, P. Shawhan, D. H. Shoemaker, A. Sibley, X. Siemens, D. Sigg, S. Sinha, A. M. Sintes, B. J. J. Slagmolen, J. Slutsky, J. R. Smith, M. R. Smith, N. D. Smith, K. Somiya, B. Sorazu, A. Stein, L. C. Stein, S. Steplewski, A. Stochino, R. Stone, K. A. Strain, S. Strigin, A. Stroeer, A. L. Stuver, T. Z. Summerscales, K.-X. Sun, M. Sung, P. J. Sutton, G. P. Szokoly, D. Talukder, L. Tang, D. B. Tanner, S. P. Tarabrin, J. R. Taylor, R. Taylor, J. Thacker, K. A. Thorne, K. S. Thorne, A. Thüring, K. V. Tokmakov, C. Torres, C. Torrie, G. Traylor, M. Trias, D. Ugolini, J. Ulmen, K. Urbanek, H. Vahlbruch, M. Vallisneri, C. van den Broeck, M. V. van der Sluys, A. A. van Veggel, S. Vass, R. Vaulin, A. Vecchio, J. Veitch, P. Veitch, C. Veltkamp, A. Villar, C. Vorvick, S. P. Vyachanin, S. J. Waldman, L. Wallace, R. L. Ward, A. Weidner, M. Weinert, A. J. Weinstein, R. Weiss, L. Wen, S. Wen, K. Wette, J. T. Whelan, S. E. Whitcomb, B. F. Whiting, C. Wilkinson, P. A. Willems, H. R. Williams, L. Williams, B. Willke, I. Wilmut, L. Winkelmann, W. Winkler, C. C. Wipf, A. G. Wiseman, G. Woan, R. Wooley, J. Worden, W. Wu, I. Yakushin, H. Yamamoto, Z. Yan, S. Yoshida, M. Zanolin, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, N. Zotov, M. E. Zucker, H. zur Mühlen, and J. Zweizig (The LIGO Scientific Collaboration62 2009 ApJ 701 L68-L74 doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/L68
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