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Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state

Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, Rana X. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bastarrika, M. and Bayer, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, K. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Casebolt, T. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Cokelaer, T. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Cutler, R. M. and Dalrymple, J. and Danilishin, S. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Díaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J.-C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Fotopoulos, N. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. and González, G. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayama, K. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Hennessy, M. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kamat, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Kozhevatov, I. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lang, M. M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lück, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandic, V. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McIvor, G. and McKechan, D. and McKenzie, K. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Miao, H. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and Mow-Lowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Müller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and Ogin, G. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perreca, A. and Petrie, T. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Rüdiger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and Sancho de la Jordana, L. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Schediwy, S. W. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, L. C. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thüring, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Van Den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyatchanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Weinert, M. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and Zweizig, J. and Weinstein, Alan J. (2009) Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state. New Journal of Physics, 11 (7). Art. No. 073032. ISSN 1367-2630. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032.

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We introduce a novel cooling technique capable of approaching the quantum ground state of a kilogram-scale system—an interferometric gravitational wave detector. The detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) operate within a factor of 10 of the standard quantum limit (SQL), providing a displacement sensitivity of 10^(−18) m in a 100 Hz band centered on 150 Hz. With a new feedback strategy, we dynamically shift the resonant frequency of a 2.7 kg pendulum mode to lie within this optimal band, where its effective temperature falls as low as 1.4 μK, and its occupation number reaches about 200 quanta. This work shows how the exquisite sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational waves can be made available to probe the validity of quantum mechanics on an enormous mass scale.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Adhikari, Rana X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Ajith, P.0000-0001-7519-2439
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biswas, R.0000-0002-5741-7195
Bose, S.0000-0002-3445-4479
Brady, P. R.0000-0002-4611-9387
Brown, D. A.0000-0002-9180-5765
Byer, R. L.0000-0003-1331-0318
Chen, Y.0000-0002-9730-9463
Corbitt, T.0000-0002-5520-8541
Coyne, D.0000-0002-6427-3222
Fejer, M. M.0000-0002-5512-1905
Freise, A.0000-0001-6586-9901
Harms, J.0000-0002-7332-9806
Kalogera, V.0000-0001-9236-5469
Kanner, J.0000-0001-8115-0577
Kissel, J. S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Kozak, D.0000-0003-3118-8950
Libbrecht, K.0000-0002-8744-3298
Miao, H.0000-0003-2879-5821
Mueller, G.0000-0001-8010-742X
Nishizawa, A.0000-0003-3562-0990
Ottaway, D. J.0000-0001-6794-1591
Quetschke, V.0000-0002-8012-4868
Schnabel, R.0000-0003-2896-4218
Stein, L. C.0000-0001-7559-9597
Tanner, D. B.0000-0003-1940-4710
Vecchio, A.0000-0002-6254-1617
Vyatchanin, S. P.0000-0002-6823-911X
Whiting, B. F.0000-0002-8501-8669
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zhao, C.0000-0001-5825-2401
Zucker, M.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Weinstein, Alan J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Additional Information:© 2009 Institute of Physics. Received 20 February 2009; published 16 July 2009.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Economia Hisenda i Innovacio of the Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:7
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20090923-115151991
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Official Citation:Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state B Abbott, R Abbott, R Adhikari, P Ajith, B Allen, G Allen, R Amin, S B Anderson, W G Anderson, M A Arain, M Araya, H Armandula, P Armor, Y Aso, S Aston, P Aufmuth, C Aulbert, S Babak, S Ballmer, H Bantilan, B C Barish, C Barker, D Barker, B Barr, P Barriga, M A Barton, M Bastarrika, K Bayer, J Betzwieser, P T Beyersdorf, I A Bilenko, G Billingsley, R Biswas, E Black, K Blackburn, L Blackburn, D Blair, B Bland, T P Bodiya, L Bogue, R Bork, V Boschi, S Bose, P R Brady, V B Braginsky, J E Brau, M Brinkmann, A Brooks, D A Brown, G Brunet, A Bullington, A Buonanno, O Burmeister, R L Byer, L Cadonati, G Cagnoli, J B Camp, J Cannizzo, K Cannon, J Cao, L Cardenas, T Casebolt, G Castaldi, C Cepeda, E Chalkley, P Charlton, S Chatterji, S Chelkowski, Y Chen, N Christensen, D Clark, J Clark, T Cokelaer, R Conte, D Cook, T Corbitt, D Coyne, J D E Creighton, A Cumming, L Cunningham, R M Cutler, J Dalrymple, S Danilishin, K Danzmann, G Davies, D DeBra, J Degallaix, M Degree, V Dergachev, S Desai, R DeSalvo, S Dhurandhar, M Díaz, J Dickson, A Dietz, F Donovan, K L Dooley, E E Doomes, R W P Drever, I Duke, J-C Dumas, R J Dupuis, J G Dwyer, C Echols, A Effler, P Ehrens, E Espinoza, T Etzel, T Evans, S Fairhurst, Y Fan, D Fazi, H Fehrmann, M M Fejer, L S Finn, K Flasch, N Fotopoulos, A Freise, R Frey, T Fricke, P Fritschel, V V Frolov, M Fyffe, J Garofoli, I Gholami, J A Giaime, S Giampanis, K D Giardina, K Goda, E Goetz, L Goggin, G González, S Gossler, R Gouaty, A Grant, S Gras, C Gray, M Gray, R J S Greenhalgh, A M Gretarsson, F Grimaldi, R Grosso, H Grote, S Grunewald, M Guenther, E K Gustafson, R Gustafson, B Hage, J M Hallam, D Hammer, C Hanna, J Hanson, J Harms, G Harry, E Harstad, K Hayama, T Hayler, J Heefner, I S Heng, M Hennessy, A Heptonstall, M Hewitson, S Hild, E Hirose, D Hoak, D Hosken, J Hough, S H Huttner, D Ingram, M Ito, A Ivanov, B Johnson, W W Johnson, D I Jones, G Jones, R Jones, L Ju, P Kalmus, V Kalogera, S Kamat, J Kanner, D Kasprzyk, E Katsavounidis, K Kawabe, S Kawamura, F Kawazoe, W Kells, D G Keppel, F Ya Khalili, R Khan, E Khazanov, C Kim, P King, J S Kissel, S Klimenko, K Kokeyama, V Kondrashov, R K Kopparapu, D Kozak, I Kozhevatov, B Krishnan, P Kwee, P K Lam, M Landry, M M Lang, B Lantz, A Lazzarini, M Lei, N Leindecker, V Leonhardt, I Leonor, K Libbrecht, H Lin, P Lindquist, N A Lockerbie, D Lodhia, M Lormand, P Lu, M Lubinski, A Lucianetti, H Lück, B Machenschalk, M MacInnis, M Mageswaran, K Mailand, V Mandic, S Márka, Z Márka, A Markosyan, J Markowitz, E Maros, I Martin, R M Martin, J N Marx, K Mason, F Matichard, L Matone, R Matzner, N Mavalvala, R McCarthy, D E McClelland, S C McGuire, M McHugh, G McIntyre, G McIvor, D McKechan, K McKenzie, T Meier, A Melissinos, G Mendell, R A Mercer, S Meshkov, C J Messenger, D Meyers, H Miao, J Miller, J Minelli, S Mitra, V P Mitrofanov, G Mitselmakher, R Mittleman, O Miyakawa, B Moe, S Mohanty, G Moreno, K Mossavi, C Mow-Lowry, G Mueller, S Mukherjee, H Mukhopadhyay, H Müller-Ebhardt, J Munch, P Murray, E Myers, J Myers, T Nash, J Nelson, G Newton, A Nishizawa, K Numata, J O'Dell, G Ogin, B O'Reilly, R O'Shaughnessy, D J Ottaway, R S Ottens, H Overmier, B J Owen, Y Pan, C Pankow, M A Papa, V Parameshwaraiah, P Patel, M Pedraza, S Penn, A Perreca, T Petrie, I M Pinto, M Pitkin, H J Pletsch, M V Plissi, F Postiglione, M Principe, R Prix, V Quetschke, F Raab, D S Rabeling, H Radkins, N Rainer, M Rakhmanov, M Ramsunder, H Rehbein, S Reid, D H Reitze, R Riesen, K Riles, B Rivera, N A Robertson, C Robinson, E L Robinson, S Roddy, A Rodriguez, A M Rogan, J Rollins, J D Romano, J Romie, R Route, S Rowan, A Rüdiger, L Ruet, P Russell, K Ryan, S Sakata, M Samidi, L Sancho de la Jordana, V Sandberg, V Sannibale, S Saraf, P Sarin, B S Sathyaprakash, S Sato, P R Saulson, R Savage, P Savov, S W Schediwy, R Schilling, R Schnabel, R Schofield, B F Schutz, P Schwinberg, S M Scott, A C Searle, B Sears, F Seifert, D Sellers, A S Sengupta, P Shawhan, D H Shoemaker, A Sibley, X Siemens, D Sigg, S Sinha, A M Sintes, B J J Slagmolen, J Slutsky, J R Smith, M R Smith, N D Smith, K Somiya, B Sorazu, L C Stein, A Stochino, R Stone, K A Strain, D M Strom, A Stuver, T Z Summerscales, K-X Sun, M Sung, P J Sutton, H Takahashi, D B Tanner, R Taylor, R Taylor, J Thacker, K A Thorne, K S Thorne, A Thüring, K V Tokmakov, C Torres, C Torrie, G Traylor, M Trias, W Tyler, D Ugolini, J Ulmen, K Urbanek, H Vahlbruch, C Van Den Broeck, M van der Sluys, S Vass, R Vaulin, A Vecchio, J Veitch, P Veitch, A Villar, C Vorvick, S P Vyatchanin, S J Waldman, L Wallace, H Ward, R Ward, M Weinert, A Weinstein, R Weiss, S Wen, K Wette, J T Whelan, S E Whitcomb, B F Whiting, C Wilkinson, P A Willems, H R Williams, L Williams, B Willke, I Wilmut, W Winkler, C C Wipf, A G Wiseman, G Woan, R Wooley, J Worden, W Wu, I Yakushin, H Yamamoto, Z Yan, S Yoshida, M Zanolin, J Zhang, L Zhang, C Zhao, N Zotov, M Zucker and J Zweizig (LIGO Scientific Collaboration) 2009 New J. Phys. 11 073032 (13pp) doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032
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ID Code:16006
Deposited On:25 Sep 2009 19:51
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 23:24

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