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Tracing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Warm Dust Emission in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

Howell, Justin H. and Mazzarella, Joseph M. and Chan, Ben H. P. and Lord, Steven and Surace, Jason A. and Frayer, David T. and Appleton, P. N. and Armus, Lee and Evans, Aaron S. and Bothun, Greg and Ishida, Catherine M. and Kim, Dong-Chan and Jensen, Joseph B. and Madore, Barry F. and Sanders, David B. and Schulz, Bernhard and Vavilkin, Tatjana and Veilleux, Sylvain and Xu, Kevin (2007) Tracing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Warm Dust Emission in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068. Astronomical Journal, 134 (5). pp. 2086-2097. ISSN 0004-6256.

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We present a study of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 using mid- and far-infrared data acquired with the IRAC, IRS, and MIPS instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The images show extensive 8 and 24 μm emission coinciding with star formation in the inner spiral approximately 15'' (1 kpc) from the nucleus and a bright complex of star formation ~47'' (3 kpc) southwest of the nucleus. The brightest 8 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission regions coincide remarkably well with knots observed in an Hα image. Strong PAH features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are detected in IRS spectra measured at numerous locations inside, within, and outside the inner spiral. The IRAC colors and IRS spectra of these regions rule out dust heated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) as the primary emission source; the spectral energy distributions are dominated by starlight and PAH emission. The equivalent widths and flux ratios of the PAH features in the inner spiral are generally consistent with conditions in a typical spiral galaxy interstellar medium (ISM). Interior to the inner spiral, the influence of the AGN on the ISM is evident via PAH flux ratios indicative of a higher ionization parameter and a significantly smaller mean equivalent width than observed in the inner spiral. The brightest 8 and 24 μm emission peaks in the disk of the galaxy, even at distances beyond the inner spiral, are located within the ionization cones traced by [O III]/Hβ, and they are also remarkably well aligned with the axis of the radio jets. Although it is possible that radiation from the AGN may directly enhance PAH excitation or trigger the formation of OB stars that subsequently excite PAH emission at these locations in the inner spiral, the orientation of collimated radiation from the AGN and star formation knots in the inner spiral could be coincidental. The brightest PAH- and 24 μm-emitting regions are also located precisely where two spiral arms of molecular gas emerge from the ends of the inner stellar bar; this is consistent with kinematic models that predict maxima in the accumulation and compression of the ISM, where gas gets trapped within the inner Lindblad resonance of a large stellar bar that contains a smaller, weaker bar.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription DOIArticle
Mazzarella, Joseph M.0000-0002-8204-8619
Surace, Jason A.0000-0001-7291-0087
Frayer, David T.0000-0003-1924-1122
Appleton, P. N.0000-0002-7607-8766
Armus, Lee0000-0003-3498-2973
Evans, Aaron S.0000-0003-2638-1334
Madore, Barry F.0000-0002-1576-1676
Sanders, David B.0000-0002-1233-9998
Veilleux, Sylvain0000-0002-3158-6820
Xu, Kevin0000-0002-1588-6700
Additional Information:© 2007 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2007 April 10; accepted 2007 July 19. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We would like to thank J. Condon for making his VLA radio continuum maps available to us, P. Shopbell for H and [O iii] images of NGC 1068, E. Schinnerer for the CO image, B. Brandl for providing his average starburst galaxy spectrum, and J. D. Smith for assistance in using the PAHFIT software. We thank the anonymous referee for constructive comments. Support for this work was provided by NASA through contracts 1263752, 1264790, and 1267948 (D. C. K. and S. V.) issued by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:galaxies : individual (NGC 1068); galaxies : Seyfert; infrared : galaxies
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20091027-112833806
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Official Citation:Tracing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Warm Dust Emission in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068 Justin H. Howell, Joseph M. Mazzarella, Ben H. P. Chan, Steven Lord, Jason A. Surace, David T. Frayer, P. N. Appleton, Lee Armus, Aaron S. Evans, Greg Bothun, Catherine M. Ishida, Dong-Chan Kim, Joseph B. Jensen, Barry F. Madore, David B. Sanders, Bernhard Schulz, Tatjana Vavilkin, Sylvain Veilleux, and Kevin Xu 2007 The Astronomical Journal 134 2086-2097 doi: 10.1086/521821
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:16493
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Nov 2009 17:44
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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