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On the Progenitor of SN 2005gl and the Nature of Type IIn Supernovae

Gal-Yam, Avishay and Leonard, D. C. and Fox, D. B. and Cenko, S. B. and Soderberg, A. M. and Moon, D.-S. and Sand, D. J. and Li, Weidong and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Aldering, G. and Copin, Y. (2007) On the Progenitor of SN 2005gl and the Nature of Type IIn Supernovae. Astrophysical Journal, 656 (1). pp. 372-381. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present a study of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2005gl, in the relatively nearby (d ≈ 66 Mpc) galaxy NGC 266. Photometry and spectroscopy of the SN indicate that it is a typical member of its class. Pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the location of the SN, along with a precise localization of this event using the laser guide star assisted adaptive optics (LGS-AO) system at Keck Observatory, are combined to identify a luminous (M_V = -10.3 mag) point source as the possible progenitor of SN 2005gl. If the source is indeed a single star, it was likely a member of the class of luminous blue variable stars (LBVs). This finding leads us to consider the possible general association of SNe IIn with LBV progenitors; it is indeed supported by observations of other SNe, and the known properties of LBV stars. For example, we argue that should the prototypical Galactic LBV η Carina explode in a phase similar to its current state, it will likely produce a SN IIn. We discuss our findings in the context of current ideas about the evolution of massive stars and review the census of SNe with identified progenitors. The concept of the progenitor-SN map is introduced as a convenient means to discuss the present status and future prospects of direct searches for SN progenitors. We conclude that this field has matured considerably in recent years, and the transition from anecdotal information about rare single events to robust associations of progenitor classes with specific SN types has already begun.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Fox, D. B.0000-0002-3714-672X
Cenko, S. B.0000-0003-1673-970X
Moon, D.-S.0000-0003-4200-5064
Sand, D. J.0000-0003-4102-380X
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Copin, Y.0000-0002-5317-7518
Additional Information:© 2007 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2006 August 1; accepted 2006 October 16. We are grateful to V. Dwarkadas, J. Eldridge, R. de Grijs, R. Kirshner, D. Maoz, P. Nugent, E. O. Ofek, and N. Smith for useful advice. K. Dawson and K. Barbary are thanked for assistance with LRIS observations at Keck. This research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A. G. acknowledges support by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF-01158.01-A awarded by STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555. A. G. further acknowledges the hospitality of the community of Cefalu and the efforts of the organizers of the 2006 Cefalu international astronomy conference, during which this work has come to fruition. D. C. L. acknowledges support from a National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship (award AST 0-401479), under which part of this work was completed. D. J. S. acknowledges support provided by NASA through Chandra Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF5-60041. The work of A. V. F.’s group at UC Berkeley is supported by NSF grants AST 03-07894 and AST 0607485, as well as by NASA grant AR-10690 from STScI. KAIT and its ongoing research were made possible by generous donations from Sun Microsystems, Inc., the Hewlett- Packard Company, AutoScope Corporation, Lick Observatory, NSF, the University of California, the Sylvia and Jim Katzman Foundation, and the TABASGO Foundation. This work was supported in part by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-FG02-92ER40704, with additional support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the CNRS/ IN2P3, CNRS/INSU, and PNC agencies in France.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF-01158.01-A
NASANAS 5-26555
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST 04-401479
NASA Chandra FellowshipPF5-60041
NSFAST 03-07894
NSFAST 0607485
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG02-92ER40704
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:instrumentation: adaptive optics; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (SN 2005gl)
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20091112-140315534
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:On the Progenitor of SN 2005gl and the Nature of Type IIn Supernovae Avishay Gal-Yam, D. C. Leonard, D. B. Fox, S. B. Cenko, A. M. Soderberg, D.-S. Moon, D. J. Sand, Weidong Li, Alexei V. Filippenko, G. Aldering, and Y. Copin 2007 ApJ 656 372-381 doi: 10.1086/510
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:16689
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:16 Nov 2009 21:50
Last Modified:19 Nov 2019 00:46

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