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Quantum-state preparation and macroscopic entanglement in gravitational-wave detectors

Müller-Ebhardt, Helge and Rehbein, Henning and Li, Chao and Mino, Yasushi and Somiya, Kentaro and Schnabel, Roman and Danzmann, Karsten and Chen, Yanbei (2009) Quantum-state preparation and macroscopic entanglement in gravitational-wave detectors. Physical Review A, 80 (4). 043802. ISSN 1050-2947.

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Long-baseline laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are operating at a factor of ~10 (in amplitude) above the standard quantum limit (SQL) within a broad frequency band (in the sense that Δf~f). Such a low-noise budget has already allowed the creation of a controlled 2.7 kg macroscopic oscillator with an effective eigenfrequency of 150 Hz and an occupation number of ~200. This result, along with the prospect for further improvements, heralds the possibility of experimentally probing macroscopic quantum mechanics (MQM)—quantum mechanical behavior of objects in the realm of everyday experience—using GW detectors. In this paper, we provide the mathematical foundation for the first step of a MQM experiment: the preparation of a macroscopic test mass into a nearly minimum-Heisenberg-limited Gaussian quantum state, which is possible if the interferometer's classical noise beats the SQL in a broad frequency band. Our formalism, based on Wiener filtering, allows a straightforward conversion from the noise budget of a laser interferometer, in terms of noise spectra, into the strategy for quantum-state preparation and the quality of the prepared state. Using this formalism, we consider how Gaussian entanglement can be built among two macroscopic test masses and the performance of the planned Advanced LIGO interferometers in quantum-state preparation.

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Additional Information:© 2009 American Physical Society. Received 28 February 2009; published 2 October 2009. We thank all the members of the AEI-Caltech-MIT MQM discussion group for very useful discussions. We thank K. S. Thorne for initiating this research project and V. B. Braginsky for important critical comments. Research of H.M.-E., K.S., and Y.C. is supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation’s Sofja Kovalevskaja Programme. Y.C. and K.S. are also supported by the National Science Foundation NSF Grant No. PHY-0653653 and No. PHY-0601459, as well as the David and Barbara Groce startup fund at Caltech. Research of H.R. and R.S. is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB No. 407. K.S. is also supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science JSPS. Y.M. is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-0601459 and No. PHY-0653653, NASA Grant No. NNX07AH06G and No. NNG04GK98G, and the Brinson Foundation. Research of C.L. is supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. PHY-0099568 and No. PHY-0601459.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alexander von Humboldt Foundation’s Sofja Kovalevskaja ProgrammeUNSPECIFIED
David and Barbara Groce startup fund at CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftSFB No. 407
Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Gaussian noise, gravitational wave detectors, light interferometers, quantum entanglement, quantum noise
Classification Code:PACS number(s): 42.50.Dv, 42.50.Xa, 42.50.Lc, 03.65.Ta
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20091124-143331272
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Official Citation:Quantum-state preparation and macroscopic entanglement in gravitational-wave detectors Helge Muller-Ebhardt, Henning Rehbein, Chao Li, Yasushi Mino, Kentaro Somiya, Roman Schnabel, Karsten Danzmann, and Yanbei Chen, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043802 (2009), DOI:10.1103/PhysRevA.80.043802
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:16794
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:25 Nov 2009 17:41
Last Modified:11 Sep 2014 16:50

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