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The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. II. The Cepheus Flare Observed with IRAC and MIPS

Kirk, Jason M. and Ward-Thompson, Derek and Di-Francesco, James and Bourke, Tyler L. and Evans, Neal J., II and Merín, Bruno and Allen, Lori E. and Cieza, Lucas A. and Dunham, Michael M. and Harvey, Paul and Huard, Tracy and Jørgensen, Jes K. and Miller, Jennifer F. and Noriega-Crespo, Alberto and Peterson, Dawn and Ray, Tom P. and Rebull, Luisa M. (2009) The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. II. The Cepheus Flare Observed with IRAC and MIPS. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 185 (1). pp. 198-249. ISSN 0067-0049.

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We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC; ~2 deg^2) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS; ~8 deg^2) observations of the Cepheus Flare, which is associated with the Gould Belt, at an approximate distance of ~300 pc. Around 6500 sources are detected in all four IRAC bands, of which ~900 have MIPS 24 μm detections. We identify 133 young stellar object (YSO) candidates using color-magnitude diagram techniques, and a large number of the YSO candidates are associated with the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. Cross-identifications were made with the Guide Star Catalog II and the IRAS Faint Source Catalog, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) were constructed. SED modeling was conducted to estimate the degree of infrared excess. It was found that a large majority of disks were optically thick accreting disks, suggesting that there has been little disk evolution in these sources. Nearest-neighbor clustering analysis identified four small protostellar groups (L1228, L1228N, L1251A, and L1251B) with 5-15 members each and the larger NGC 7023 association with 32 YSO members. The star-formation efficiency for cores with clusters of protostars and for those without clusters was found to be ~8% and ~1%, respectively. The cores L1155, L1241, and L1247 are confirmed to be starless down to our luminosity limit of L _(bol) = 0.06 L ⊙.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription DOIArticle
Ward-Thompson, Derek0000-0003-1140-2761
Evans, Neal J., II0000-0001-5175-1777
Cieza, Lucas A.0000-0002-2828-1153
Dunham, Michael M.0000-0003-0749-9505
Noriega-Crespo, Alberto0000-0002-6296-8960
Rebull, Luisa M.0000-0001-6381-515X
Additional Information:© 2009. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2009 February 13; accepted 2009 August 18; published 2009 November 3. We are grateful to Maria Kun and her co-authors for a preprint of their chapter, “Star Forming Regions in Cepheus,” from the Handbook of Star Forming Regions, Vol 1: The Northern Sky (2008, ed. B. Reipurth, ASP Monograph Series). J.M.K. thanks UK STFC for PDRA funding through the Cardiff Astronomy Rolling Grant. Support for this work was provided by NASA through contracts 1330171 and 1365763 (T.L.B.) issued by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, to the Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory. This work has made use of data and resources from the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Digitized Sky Survey II, the Guide Star Catalog II, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre SCUBA Archive, and the SIMBAD database. The Spitzer Space Telescope is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. The Two Micron All Sky Survey is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. The Digitized Sky Survey-II is based on photographic data obtained using The UK Schmidt Telescope. The UK Schmidt Telescope was operated by the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, with funding from the UK Science and Engineering Research Council, until 1988 June, and thereafter by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. Original plate material is copyright (c) of the Royal Observatory Edinburgh and the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The plates were processed into the present compressed digital form with their permission. The Digitized Sky Survey was produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute under US Government grant NAG W-2166. The Guide Star Catalog-II is a joint project of the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino. Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS5- 26555. The participation of the Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino is supported by the Italian Council for Research in Astronomy. Additional support is provided by European Southern Observatory, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility, the International GEMINI project, and the European Space Agency Astrophysics Division. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is operated by The Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, and the National Research Council of Canada. SCUBA was built at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre is operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency. The SIMBAD database is operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Marvelous fellows, all of them. Facilities: Spitzer, CTIO: 2MASS (), JCMT
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Cardiff Astronomy Rolling GrantUNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC)UNSPECIFIED
Space Telescope Science InstituteNAG W-2166
Italian Council for Research in AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
European Southern Observatory (ESO)UNSPECIFIED
Space Telescope European Coordinating FacilityUNSPECIFIED
International GEMINI projectUNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:infrared: general; ISM: individual (Cepheus Flare); stars: formation
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20091130-152142062
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Official Citation:The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. II. The Cepheus Flare Observed with IRAC and MIPS Jason M. Kirk, Derek Ward-Thompson, James Di Francesco, Tyler L. Bourke, Neal J. Evans, Bruno Merín, Lori E. Allen, Lucas A. Cieza, Michael M. Dunham, Paul Harvey, Tracy Huard, Jes K. Jørgensen, Jennifer F. Miller, Alberto Noriega-Crespo, Dawn Peterson, Tom P. Ray, and Luisa M. Rebull 2009 ApJS 185 198-249 doi: 10.1088/0067-0049/185/1/198
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:16843
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:04 Jan 2010 23:03
Last Modified:01 Nov 2019 05:03

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