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Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

Abraham, J. and Abreu, P. and Aglietta, M. and Aguirre, C. and Ahn, E. J. and Allard, D. and Allekotte, I. and Allen, J. and Allison, P. and Alvarez-Muñiz, J. and Ambrosio, M. and Anchordoqui, L. and Andringa, S. and Anzalone, A. and Aramo, C. and Arganda, E. and Argirò, S. and Arisaka, K. and Arneodo, F. and Arqueros, F. and Asch, T. and Asorey, H. and Assis, P. and Aublin, J. and Ave, M. and Avila, G. and Bäcker, T. and Badagnani, D. and Barber, K. B. and Barbosa, A. F. and Barroso, S. L. C. and Baughman, B. and Bauleo, P. and Beatty, J. J. and Beau, T. and Becker, B. R. and Becker, K. H. and Bellétoile, A. and Bellido, J. A. and BenZvi, S. and Berat, C. and Bernardini, P. and Bertou, X. and Biermann, P. L. and Billoir, P. and Blanch-Bigas, O. and Blanco, F. and Bleve, C. and Blümer, H. and Boháčová, M. and Bonifazi, C. and Bonino, R. and Borodai, N. and Brack, J. and Brogueira, P. and Brown, W. C. and Bruijn, R. and Buchholz, P. and Bueno, A. and Burton, R. E. and Busca, N. G. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Caramete, L. and Caruso, R. and Carvalho, W. and Castellina, A. and Catalano, O. and Cazon, L. and Cester, R. and Chauvin, J. and Chiavassa, A. and Chinellato, J. A. and Chou, A. and Chudoba, J. and Chye, J. and Clay, R. W. and Colombo, E. and Conceição, R. and Connolly, B. and Contreras, F. and Coppens, J. and Cordier, A. and Cotti, U. and Coutu, S. and Covault, C. E. and Creusot, A. and Criss, A. and Cronin, J. and Curutiu, A. and Dagoret-Campagne, S. and Dallier, R. and Daumiller, K. and Dawson, B. R. and de Almeida, R. M. and De Domenico, M. and De Donato, C. and De Jong, S. J. and De La Vega, G. and de Mello Junior, W. J. M. and de Mello Neto, J. R. T. and De Mitri, I. and de Souza, V. and de Vries, K. D. and Decerprit, G. and del Peral, L. and Deligny, O. and Della Selva, A. and Delle Fratte, C. and Dembinski, H. and Di Giulio, C. and Diaz, J. C. and Diep, P. N. and Dobrigkeit, C. and D’Olivo, J. C. and Dong, P. N. and Dornic, D. and Dorofeev, A. and dos Anjos, J. C. and Dova, M. T. and D’Urso, D. and Dutan, I. and DuVernois, M. A. and Engel, R. and Erdmann, M. and Escobar, C. O. and Etchegoyen, A. and Facal San Luis, P. and Falcke, H. and Farrar, G. and Fauth, A. C. and Fazzini, N. and Ferrer, F. and Ferrero, A. and Fick, B. and Filevich, A. and Filipčič, A. and Fleck, I. and Fliescher, S. and Fracchiolla, C. E. and Fraenkel, E. D. and Fulgione, W. and Gamarra, R. F. and Gambetta, S. and García, B. and García-Gámez, D. and Garcia-Pinto, D. and Garrido, X. and Gelmini, G. and Gemmeke, H. and Ghia, P. L. and Giaccari, U. and Giller, M. and Glass, H. and Goggin, L. M. and Gold, M. S. and Golup, G. and Gomez-Albarracin, F. and Gómez-Berisso, M. and Gonçalves, P. and Gonçalves do Amaral, M. and Gonzalez, D. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Góra, D. and Gorgi, A. and Gouffon, P. and Grashorn, E. and Grebe, S. and Grigat, M. and Grillo, A. F. and Guardincerri, Y. and Guarino, F. and Guedes, G. P. and Gutiérrez, J. and Hague, J. D. and Halenka, V. and Hansen, P. and Harari, D. and Harmsma, S. and Harton, J. L. and Haungs, A. and Healy, M. D. and Hebbeker, T. and Hebrero, G. and Heck, D. and Hojvat, C. and Holmes, V. C. and Homola, P. and Hörandel, J. R. and Horneffer, A. and Hrabovskỷ, M. and Huege, T. and Hussain, M. and Iarlori, M. and Insolia, A. and Ionita, F. and Italiano, A. and Jiraskova, S. and Kaducak, M. and Kampert, K. H. and Karova, T. and Kasper, P. and Kégl, B. and Keilhauer, B. and Kemp, E. and Kieckhafer, R. M. and Klages, H. O. and Kleifges, M. and Kleinfeller, J. and Knapik, R. and Knapp, J. and Koang, D.-H. and Krieger, A. and Krömer, O. and Kruppke-Hansen, D. and Kuempel, D. and Kunka, N. and Kusenko, A. and La-Rosa, G. and Lachaud, C. and Lago, B. L. and Lautridou, P. and Leão, M. S. A. B. and Lebrun, D. and Lebrun, P. and Lee, J. and Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. and Lemiere, A. and Letessier-Selvon, A. and Leuthold, M. and Lhenry-Yvon, I. and López, R. and Lopez Agüera, A. and Louedec, K. and Lozano Bahilo, J. and Lucero, A. and Luna García, R. and Lyberis, H. and Maccarone, M. C. and Macolino, C. and Maldera, S. and Mandat, D. and Mantsch, P. and Mariazzi, A. G. and Maris, I. C. and Marquez-Falcon, H. R. and Martello, D. and Martínez, J. and Martínez Bravo, O. and Mathes, H. J. and Matthews, J. and Matthews, J. A. J. and Matthiae, G. and Maurizio, D. and Mazur, P. O. and McEwen, M. and McNeil, R. R. and Medina-Tanco, G. and Melissas, M. and Melo, D. and Menichetti, E. and Menshikov, A. and Meyhandan, R. and Micheletti, M. I. and Miele, G. and Miller, W. and Miramonti, L. and Mollerach, S. and Monasor, M. and Monnier Ragaigne, D. and Montanet, F. and Morales, B. and Morello, C. and Moreno, J. C. and Morris, C. and Mostafá, M. and Moura, C. A. and Mueller, S. and Muller, M. A. and Mussa, R. and Navarra, G. and Navarro, J. L. and Navas, S. and Necesal, P. and Nellen, L. and Newman-Holmes, C. and Newton, D. and Nhung, P. T. and Nierstenhoefer, N. and Nitz, D. and Nosek, D. and Nožka, L. and Nyklicek, M. and Oehlschläger, J. and Olinto, A. and Oliva, P. and Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M. and Ortiz, M. and Ortolani, F. and Pacheco, N. and Pakk-Selmi-Dei, D. and Palatka, M. and Pallotta, J. and Parente, G. and Parizot, E. and Parlati, S. and Pastor, S. and Patel, M. and Paul, T. and Pavlidou, V. and Payet, K. and Pech, M. and Pękala, J. and Pelayo, R. and Pepe, I. M. and Perrone, L. and Pesce, R. and Petermann, E. and Petrera, S. and Petrinca, P. and Petrolini, A. and Petrov, Y. and Petrovic, J. and Pfendner, C. and Piegaia, R. and Pierog, T. and Pimenta, M. and Pinto, T. and Pirronello, V. and Pisanti, O. and Platino, M. and Pochon, J. and Ponce, V. H. and Pontz, M. and Privitera, P. and Prouza, M. and Quel, E. J. and Rautenberg, J. and Ravel, O. and Ravignani, D. and Redondo, A. and Reucroft, S. and Revenu, B. and Rezende, F. A. S. and Ridky, J. and Riggi, S. and Risse, M. and Rivière, C. and Rizi, V. and Robledo, C. and Rodriguez, G. and Rodriguez-Martino, J. and Rodriguez-Rojo, J. and Rodriguez-Cabo, I. and Rodríguez-Frías, M. D. and Ros, G. and Rosado, J. and Rossler, T. and Roth, M. and Rouillé-d’Orfeui, A. and Roulet, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Salamida, F. and Salazar, H. and Salina, G. and Sánchez, F. and Santander, M. and Santo, C. E. and Santos, E. M. and Sarazin, F. and Sarkar, S. and Sato, R. and Scharf, N. and Scherini, V. and Schieler, H. and Schiffer, P. and Schmidt, A. and Schmidt, F. and Schmidt, T. and Scholten, O. and Schoorlemmer, H. and Schovancova, J. and Schovánek, P. and Schroeder, F. and Schulte, S. and Schüssler, F. and Schuster, D. and Sciutto, S. J. and Scuderi, M. and Segreto, A. and Semikoz, D. and Settimo, M. and Shellard, R. C. and Sidelnik, I. and Siffert, B. B. and Smiałkowski, A. and Šmída, R. and Smith, B. E. and Snow, G. R. and Sommers, P. and Sorokin, J. and Spinka, H. and Squartini, R. and Strazzeri, E. and Stutz, A. and Suarez, F. and Suomijärvi, T. and Supanitsky, A. D. and Sutherland, M. S. and Swain, J. and Szadkowski, Z. and Tamashiro, A. and Tamburro, A. and Tarutina, T. and Taşcău, O. and Tcaciuc, R. and Tcherniakhovski, D. and Thao, N. T. and Thomas, D. and Ticona, R. and Tiffenberg, J. and Timmermans, C. and Tkaczyk, W. and Todero-Peixoto, C. J. and Tomé, B. and Tonachini, A. and Torres, I. and Travnicek, P. and Tridapalli, D. B. and Tristram, G. and Trovato, E. and Tuci, V. and Tueros, M. and Ulrich, R. and Unger, M. and Urban, M. and Valdés-Galicia, J. F. and Valiño, I. and Valore, L. and van den Berg, A. M. and Vázquez, J. R. and Vázquez, R. A. and Veberič, D. and Velarde, A. and Venters, T. and Verzi, V. and Videla, M. and Villaseñor, L. and Vorobiov, S. and Voyvodic, L. and Wahlberg, H. and Wahrlich, P. and Wainberg, O. and Warner, D. and Watson, A. A. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Wieczorek, G. and Wiencke, L. and Wilczyńska, B. and Wilczyński, H. and Wileman, C. and Winnick, M. G. and Wu, H. and Wundheiler, B. and Yamamoto, T. and Younk, P. and Yuan, G. and Zas, E. and Zavrtanik, D. and Zavrtanik, M. and Zaw, I. and Zepeda, A. and Ziolkowski, M. (2009) Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. Astroparticle Physics, 32 (2). pp. 89-99. ISSN 0927-6505. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20091201-094133422

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Abstract

Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density (ρ∝P/T), affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a not, vert, similar 10% seasonal modulation and not, vert, similar 2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of P and ρ. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Molière radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.06.004DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Stutz, A.0000-0003-2300-8200
Additional Information:© 2009 Elsevier B.V. Received 28 May 2009; revised 22 June 2009; accepted 22 June 2009. Available online 3 July 2009. The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing cooperation over land access, Argentina; the Australian Research Council; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT), Brazil; AVCR AV0Z10100502 and AV0Z10100522, GAAV KJB300100801 and KJB100100904, MSMT-CR LA08016, LC527, 1M06002, and MSM0021620859, Czech Republic; Centre de Calcul IN2P3/CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Conseil Régional Ile-de-France, Département Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire (PNC-IN2P3/CNRS), Département Sciences de l’Univers (SDU-INSU/CNRS), France; Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF), Finanzministerium Baden-Württemberg, Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR), Italy; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Mexico; Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), The Netherlands; Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Grant Nos. 1 P03 D 014 30, N202 090 31/0623, and PAP/218/2006, Poland; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal; Ministry for Higher Education, Science, and Technology, Slovenian Research Agency, Slovenia; Comunidad de Madrid, Consejería de Educación de la Comunidad de Castilla La Mancha, FEDER funds, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Xunta de Galicia, Spain; Science and Technology Facilities Council, United Kingdom; Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC02- 07CH11359, National Science Foundation, Grant No. 0450696, The Grainger Foundation USA; ALFA-EC/ HELEN, European Union 6th Framework Program, Grant No. MEIF-CT-2005-025057, European Union 7th Framework Program, Grant No. PIEF-GA-2008-220240, and UNESCO.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Comisión Nacional de Energía AtómicaUNSPECIFIED
Fundación AntorchasUNSPECIFIED
Gobierno De La Provincia de MendozaUNSPECIFIED
Municipalidad de MalargüeUNSPECIFIED
NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, ArgentinaUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e ProjetosUNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (FAPRJ)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia, Brazil AVCR AV0Z10100502
Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia, Brazil AV0Z10100522
Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia, Brazil GAAVKJB300100801
Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia, Brazil KJB100100904
Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeze a Telovýchovy (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports; Czech Republic)LA08016
Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeze a Telovýchovy (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports; Czech Republic)LC527
Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeze a Telovýchovy (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports; Czech Republic)1M06002
Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeze a Telovýchovy (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports; Czech Republic)MSM0021620859
Czech Republic: Centre de CalculUNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Conseil Régional Ile-de-FranceUNSPECIFIED
Département Physique Nucléaire et CorpusculaireUNSPECIFIED
Département Sciences de l’Univers , FranceUNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF)UNSPECIFIED
Finanzministerium Baden-WürttembergUNSPECIFIED
Ministerium für Wissenschaft und ForschungUNSPECIFIED
Nordrhein-WestfalenUNSPECIFIED
Ministerium für WissenschaftUNSPECIFIED
Forschung und Kunst Baden-Württemberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerie van OnderwijsUNSPECIFIED
Cultuur en WetenschapUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Higher Education Poland1 P03 D 014 30
Ministry of Science and Higher Education Poland N202090 31/0623
Ministry of Science and Higher Education PolandPAP/218/2006
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry for Higher Education, Science, and TechnologyUNSPECIFIED
Slovenian Research Agency, SloveniaUNSPECIFIED
Comunidad de MadridUNSPECIFIED
Consejería de Educación de la Comunidad de Castilla La ManchaUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Xunta de Galicia, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-07CH11359
NSF0450696
The Grainger Foundation USAUNSPECIFIED
European Union 6th Framework ProgramMEIF-CT-2005-025057
European Union 7th Framework ProgramPIEF-GA-2008- 220240
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Extensive air showers; UHECR; Atmosphere; Weather
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:PACS classification codes: 96.50.sd; 96.50.sb; 96.50.sf
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20091201-094133422
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20091201-094133422
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:16848
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:04 Jan 2010 22:52
Last Modified:01 Nov 2019 00:00

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