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Exploring protein fitness landscapes by directed evolution

Romero, Philip A. and Arnold, Frances H. (2009) Exploring protein fitness landscapes by directed evolution. Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology, 10 (12). pp. 866-876. ISSN 1471-0072. PMCID PMC2997618. doi:10.1038/nrm2805.

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Directed evolution circumvents our profound ignorance of how a protein's sequence encodes its function by using iterative rounds of random mutation and artificial selection to discover new and useful proteins. Proteins can be tuned to adapt to new functions or environments by simple adaptive walks involving small numbers of mutations. Directed evolution studies have shown how rapidly some proteins can evolve under strong selection pressures and, because the entire 'fossil record' of evolutionary intermediates is available for detailed study, they have provided new insight into the relationship between sequence and function. Directed evolution has also shown how mutations that are functionally neutral can set the stage for further adaptation.

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Romero, Philip A.0000-0002-2586-7263
Arnold, Frances H.0000-0002-4027-364X
Additional Information:© 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. The authors acknowledge support from the U.S. Army Research Office, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Army Research Office (ARO)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:12
PubMed Central ID:PMC2997618
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20091210-104030533
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:16942
Deposited On:10 Dec 2009 19:19
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 23:31

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