A Caltech Library Service

Time (in)dependence in general relativity

Deser, S. and Franklin, J. (2007) Time (in)dependence in general relativity. American Journal of Physics, 75 (3). pp. 281-283. ISSN 0002-9505.

PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We clarify the conditions for Birkhoff's theorem, that is, time independence in general relativity. We work primarily at the linearized level where guidance from electrodynamics is particularly useful. As a bonus, we also review how the equivalence principle results from general relativity. The basic time-independent solutions due to Schwarzschild and Kerr provide concrete illustrations of the theorem. Only familiarity with Maxwell's equations and tensor analysis is required.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription DOIArticle Paper
Deser, S.0000-0001-9285-9434
Additional Information:© 2007 American Association of Physics Teachers. Received 6 July 2006; accepted 1 December 2006. I would like to thank L. Moriconi and C. Tomei for useful discussions. The remarks of two anonymous referees are gratefully acknowledged, especially for pointing out Ref. 7 and correcting the wave functions for the infinite potential well. This work has been partially supported by Faperj.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:physics education, general relativity, electrodynamics, Maxwell equations, gravitation, Schwarzschild metric
Issue or Number:3
Classification Code:PACS 04.00.00
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20100205-080823285
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Time (in)dependence in general relativity S. Deser and J. Franklin, Am. J. Phys. 75, 281 (2007), DOI:10.1119/1.2426351
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:17392
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Feb 2010 18:59
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 01:27

Repository Staff Only: item control page