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Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector

Adamson, P. and Andreopoulos, C. and Arms, K. E. and Armstrong, R. and Auty, D. J. and Ayres, D. S. and Backhouse, C. and Barnett, J. and Barr, G. and Barrett, W. L. and Becker, B. R. and Bishai, M. and Blake, A. and Bock, B. and Bock, G. J. and Boehnlein, D. J. and Bogert, D. and Bower, C. and Cavanaugh, S. and Chapman, J. D. and Cherdack, D. and Childress, S. and Choudhary, B. C. and Cobb, J. H. and Coleman, S. J. and Cronin-Hennessy, D. and Culling, A. J. and Danko, I. Z. and de Jong, J. K. and Devenish, N. E. and Diwan, M. V. and Dorman, M. and Escobar, C. O. and Evans, J. J. and Falk, E. and Feldman, G. J. and Fields, T. H. and Frohne, M. V. and Gallagher, H. R. and Godley, A. and Goodman, M. C. and Gouffon, P. and Gran, R. and Grashorn, E. W. and Grzelak, K. and Habig, A. and Harris, D. and Harris, P. G. and Hartnell, J. and Hatcher, R. and Heller, K. and Himmel, A. and Holin, A. and Hylen, J. and Irwin, G. M. and Isvan, Z. and Jaffe, D. E. and James, C. and Jensen, D. and Kafka, T. and Kasahara, S. M. S. and Koizumi, G. and Kopp, S. and Kordosky, M. and Korman, K. and Koskinen, D. J. and Krahn, Z. and Kreymer, A. and Lang, K. and Ling, J. and Litchfield, P. J. and Loiacono, L. and Lucas, P. and Ma, J. and Mann, W. A. and Marshak, M. L. and Marshall, J. S. and Mayer, N. and McGowan, A. M. and Mehdiyev, R. and Meier, J. R. and Messier, M. D. and Metelko, C. J. and Michael, D. G. and Miller, W. H. and Mishra, S. R. and Mitchell, J. and Moore, C. D. and Morfín, J. and Mualem, L. and Mufson, S. and Musser, J. and Naples, D. and Nelson, J. K. and Newman, H. B. and Nichol, R. J. and Nicholls, T. C. and Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P. and Oliver, W. P. and Osiecki, T. and Ospanov, R. and Osprey, S. and Paley, J. and Patterson, R. B. and Patzak, T. and Pawloski, G. and Pearce, G. F. and Peterson, E. A. and Pittam, R. and Plunkett, R. K. and Rahaman, A. and Rameika, R. A. and Raufer, T. M. and Rebel, B. and Reichenbacher, J. and Rodrigues, P. A. and Rosenfeld, C. and Rubin, H. A. and Ryabov, V. A. and Sanchez , M. C. and Saoulidou, N. and Schneps, J. and Schreiner, P. and Shanahan, P. and Smart, W. and Smith, C. and Sousa, A. and Speakman, B. and Stamoulis, P. and Strait, M. and Tagg, N. and Talaga, R. L. and Thomas, J. and Thomson, M. A. and Thron, J. L. and Tinti, G. and Toner, R. and Tsarev, V. A. and Tzanakos, G. and Urheim, J. and Vahle, P. and Viren, B. and Watabe, M. and Weber, A. and Webb, R. C. and West, N. and White, C. and Whitehead, L. and Wojcicki, S. G. and Wright, D. M. and Yang, T. and Zois, M. and Zhang, K. and Zwaska, R. (2010) Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector. Physical Review D, 81 (1). Art. No. 012001. ISSN 0556-2821.

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The temperature of the upper atmosphere affects the height of primary cosmic ray interactions and the production of high-energy cosmic ray muons which can be detected deep underground. The MINOS far detector at Soudan, MN, has collected over 67 × 10^6 cosmic ray induced muons. The underground muon rate measured over a period of five years exhibits a 4% peak-to-peak seasonal variation which is highly correlated with the temperature in the upper atmosphere. The coefficient, α_T, relating changes in the muon rate to changes in atmospheric temperature was found to be α_T = 0.873 ± 0.009(stat) ± 0.010(syst). Pions and kaons in the primary hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere contribute differently to αT due to the different masses and lifetimes. This allows the measured value of α_T to be interpreted as a measurement of the K/π ratio for Ep ≳ 7  TeV of 0.12^(+0.07)_(-0.05), consistent with the expectation from collider experiments.

Item Type:Article
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Newman, H. B.0000-0003-0964-1480
Patterson, R. B.0000-0002-5787-9517
Additional Information:© 2010 American Physical Society. Received 12 September 2009; revised 19 November 2009; published 6 January 2010. We thank the Fermilab staff and the technical staffs of the participating institutions for their vital contributions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.K. Science and Technologies Facilities Council, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the State and University of Minnesota, the Office of Special Accounts for Research Grants of the University of Athens, Greece, FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo) and CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico) in Brazil. We gratefully acknowledge the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources for their assistance and for allowing us access to the facilities of the Soudan Underground Mine State Park and the crew of the Soudan Underground Physics Laboratory for their tireless work in building and operating the MINOS far detector. We also acknowledge the BADC and the ECMWF for providing the environmental data for this project.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
State of MinnesotaUNSPECIFIED
University of AthensUNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
University of MinnesotaUNSPECIFIED
Classification Code:PACS: 95.55.Vj, 98.70.Sa, 98.70.Vc
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20100309-110223462
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:17705
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:12 Mar 2010 17:50
Last Modified:12 Oct 2017 17:57

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