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X-Ray, UV, and Optical Observations of Supernova 2006bp with Swift: Detection of Early X-Ray Emission

Immler, S. and Brown, P. J. and Milne, P. and Dessart, L. and Mazzali, P. A. and Landsman, W. and Gehrels, N. and Petre, R. and Burrows, D. N. and Nousek, J. A. and Chevalier, R. A. and Williams, C. L. and Koss, M. and Stockdale, C. J. and Kelley, M. T. and Weiler, K. W. and Holland, S. T. and Pian, E. and Roming, P. W. A. and Pooley, D. and Nomoto, K. and Greiner, J. and Campana, S. and Soderberg, A. M. (2007) X-Ray, UV, and Optical Observations of Supernova 2006bp with Swift: Detection of Early X-Ray Emission. Astrophysical Journal, 664 (1). pp. 435-442. ISSN 0004-637X. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100315-111139220

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Abstract

We present results on the X-ray and optical/UV emission from the Type II-P supernova (SN) 2006bp and the interaction of the SN shock with its environment, obtained with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board Swift. SN 2006bp is detected in X-rays at a 4.5 σ level of significance in the merged XRT data from days 1 to 12 after the explosion. If the 0.2-10 keV band X-ray luminosity of L_(0.2-10) = (1.8 ± 0.4) × 10^(39) ergs s^(-1) is caused by interaction of the SN shock with circumstellar material (CSM) deposited by a stellar wind from the progenitor's companion star, a mass-loss rate of M ≈ (1 × 10^(-5) M_⊙ yr^(-1))(v_w/10 km s^(-1)) is inferred. The mass-loss rate is consistent with the nondetection in the radio with the VLA on days 2, 9, and 11 after the explosion and is characteristic of a red supergiant progenitor with a mass of ≈12-15 M_⊙ prior to the explosion. The Swift data further show a fading of the X-ray emission starting around day 12 after the explosion. In combination with a follow-up XMM-Newton observation obtained on day 21 after the explosion, an X-ray rate of decline of L_X ∝ t^(-n) with index n = 1.2 ± 0.6 is inferred. Since no other SN has been detected in X-rays prior to the optical peak, and since Type II-P SNe have an extended "plateau" phase in the optical, we discuss the scenario that the X-rays might be due to inverse Compton scattering of photospheric optical photons off relativistic electrons produced in circumstellar shocks. However, due to the high required value of the Lorentz factor (≈10-100), which is inconsistent with the ejecta velocity inferred from optical line widths, we conclude that inverse Compton scattering is an unlikely explanation for the observed X-ray emission.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/518466DOIArticle
http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/664/1/435/PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Milne, P.0000-0002-0370-157X
Mazzali, P. A.0000-0001-6876-8284
Koss, M.0000-0002-7998-9581
Pooley, D.0000-0003-4897-7833
Nomoto, K.0000-0001-9553-0685
Additional Information:© 2007 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2006 November 15 , accepted for publication 2007 March 27. We gratefully acknowledge support provided by STScI grant HST-GO-10182.75-A (P. A. M.), NASA Chandra Postdoctoral Fellowship grant PF4-50035 (D. P.), and NSF grant AST 03- 07366 (R.A. C.). L.D. acknowledges support for this work from the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program of the DOE, grant DE-FC02-01ER41184, and from the NSF under grant AST 05-04947. K. W.W. thanks the Office of Naval Research for the 6.1 funding supporting this research. C. J. S. is a Cottrell Scholar of Research Corporation, and work on this project has been supported by the NASA Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium. This work is sponsored at Pennsylvania State University by NASA contract NAS5-00136.We wish to thank N. Schartel and the XMM-Newton SOC for approving and scheduling a XMM Newton DDT observation. The research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASAHST-GO-10182.75-A
NASA Chandra FellowshipPF4-50035
NSFAST 03-07366
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FC02-01ER41184
NSFAST 05-04947
Office of Naval Research (ONR)UNSPECIFIED
Wisconsin Space Grant ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
NASANAS5-00136
Subject Keywords:circumstellar matter; supernovae : individual (SN 2006bp); ultraviolet : ISM; X-rays : general; X-rays : individual (SN 2006bp); X-rays : ISM
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20100315-111139220
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100315-111139220
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:17732
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Mar 2010 03:13
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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