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Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^(18) eV

Abraham, J. and Abreu, P. and Aglietta, M. and Ahn, E. J. and Allard, D. and Allekotte, I. and Allen, J. and Alvarez-Muñiz, J. and Ambrosio, M. and Anchordoqui, L. and Andringa, S. and Antičić, T. and Anzalone, A. and Aramo, C. and Arganda, E. and Arisaka, K. and Arqueros, F. and Asorey, H. and Assis, P. and Aublin, J. and Ave, M. and Avila, G. and Bäcker, T. and Badagnani, D. and Balzer, M. and Barber, K. B. and Barbosa, A. F. and Barroso, S. L. C. and Baughman, B. and Bauleo, P. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, B. R. and Becker, K. H. and Bellétoile, A. and Bellido, J. A. and BenZvi, S. and Berat, C. and Bergmann, T. and Bertou, X. and Biermann, P. L. and Billoir, P. and Blanch-Bigas, O. and Blanco, F. and Blanco, M. and Bleve, C. and Blümer, H. and Boháčová, M. and Boncioli, D. and Bonifazi, C. and Bonino, R. and Borodai, N. and Brack, J. and Brogueira, P. and Brown, W. C. and Bruijn, R. and Buchholz, D. and Bueno, A. and Burton, R. E. and Busca, N. G. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Caramete, L. and Caruso, R. and Castellina, A. and Catalano, O. and Cataldi, G. and Cazon, L. and Cester, R. and Chauvin, J. and Chiavassa, A. and Chinellato, J. A. and Chou, A. and Chudoba, J. and Clay, R. W. and Colombo, E. and Coluccia, M. R. and Conceição, R. and Contreras, F. and Cook, H. and Cooper, M. J. and Coppens, J. and Cordier, A. and Cotti, U. and Coutu, S. and Covault, C. E. and Creusot, A. and Criss, A. and Cronin, J. and Curutiu, A. and Dagoret-Campagne, S. and Dallier, R. and Daumiller, K. and Dawson, B. R. and de-Almeida, R. M. and De-Domenico, M. and De-Donato, C. and De-Jong, S. J. and De-La-Vega, G. and de-Mello Junior, W. J. M. and de-Mello-Neto, J. R. T. and De-Mitri, I. and de-Souza, V. and de-Vries, K. D. and Decerprit, G. and del-Peral, L. and Deligny, O. and Della-Selva, A. and Delle-Fratte, C. and Dembinski, H. and Di-Giulio, C. and Diaz, J. C. and Diaz-Castro, M. L. and Diep, P. N. and Dobrigkeit, C. and D'Olivo, J. C. and Dong, P. N. and Dorofeev, A. and dos-Anjos, J. C. and Dova, M. T. and D'Urso, D. and Dutan, I. and Du-Vernois, M. A. and Ebr, J. and Engel, R. and Erdmann, M. and Escobar, C. O. and Etchegoyen, A. and Facal San Luis, P. and Falcke, H. and Farrar, G. and Fauth, A. C. and Fazzini, N. and Ferrero, A. and Fick, B. and Filevich, A. and Filipčič, A. and Fleck, I. and Fliescher, S. and Fracchiolla, C. E. and Fraenkel, E. D. and Fröhlich, U. and Fulgione, W. and Gamarra, R. F. and Gambetta, S. and García, B. and García-Gámez, D. and Garcia-Pinto, D. and Garrido, X. and Gelmini, G. and Gemmeke, H. and Ghia, P. L. and Giaccari, U. and Giller, M. and Glass, H. and Goggin, L. M. and Gold, M. S. and Golup, G. and Gomez-Albarracin, F. and Gόmez Berisso, M. and Gonçalves, P. and Gonzalez, D. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Gόra, D. and Gorgi, A. and Gouffon, P. and Gozzini, S. R. and Grashorn, E. and Grebe, S. and Grigat, M. and Grillo, A. F. and Guardincerri, Y. and Guarino, F. and Guedes, G. P. and Hague, J. D. and Halenka, V. and Hansen, P. and Harari, D. and Harmsma, S. and Harton, J. L. and Haungs, A. and Hebbeker, T. and Heck, D. and Herve, A. E. and Hojvat, C. and Holmes, V. C. and Homola, P. and Hörandel, J. R. and Horneffer, A. and Hrabovskỷ, M. and Huege, T. and Hussain, M. and Iarlori, M. and Insolia, A. and Ionita, F. and Italiano, A. and Jiraskova, S. and Kadija, K. and Kaducak, M. and Kampert, K. H. and Karova, T. and Kasper, P. and Kégl, B. and Keilhauer, B. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. and Kemp, E. and Kieckhafer, R. M. and Klages, H. O. and Kleifges, M. and Kleinfeller, J. and Knapik, R. and Knapp, J. and Koang, D.-H. and Krieger, A. and Krömer, O. and Kruppke-Hansen, D. and Kuehn, F. and Kuempel, D. and Kulbartz, K. and Kunka, N. and Kusenko, A. and La-Rosa, G. and Lachaud, C. and Lago, B. L. and Lautridou, P. and Leão, M. S. A. B. and Lebrun, D. and Lebrun, P. and Lee, J. and Leigui-de-Oliveira, M. A. and Lemiere, A. and Letessier-Selvon, A. and Lhenry-Yvon, I. and Lόpez, R. and Lopez-Agüera, A. and Louedec, K. and Lozano-Bahilo, J. and Lucero, A. and Ludwig, M. and Lyberis, H. and Maccarone, M. C. and Macolino, C. and Maldera, S. and Mandat, D. and Mantsch, P. and Mariazzi, A. G. and Marin, V. and Maris, I. C. and Marquez-Falcon, H. R. and Marsella, G. and Martello, D. and Martínez-Bravo, O. and Mathes, H. J. and Matthews, J. and Matthiae, G. and Maurizio, D. and Mazur, P. O. and McEwen, M. and Medina-Tanco, G. and Melissas, M. and Melo, D. and Menichetti, E. and Menshikov, A. and Meurer, C. and Mičanović, S. and Micheletti, M. I. and Miller, W. and Miramonti, L. and Mollerach, S. and Monasor, M. and Monnier-Ragaigne, D. and Montanet, F. and Morales, B. and Morello, C. and Moreno, E. and Moreno, J. C. and Morris, C. and Mostafá, M. and Mueller, S. and Muller, M. A. and Mussa, R. and Navarra, G. and Navarro, J. L. and Navas, S. and Necesal, P. and Nellen, L. and Nhung, P. T. and Nierstenhoefer, N. and Nitz, D. and Nosek, D. and Nožka, L. and Nyklicek, M. and Oehlschläger, J. and Olinto, A. and Oliva, P. and Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M. and Ortiz, M. and Pacheco, N. and Pakk-Selmi-Dei, D. and Palatka, M. and Pallotta, J. and Palmieri, N. and Parente, G. and Parizot, E. and Parlati, S. and Parra, A. and Parrisius, J. and Parsons, R. D. and Pastor, S. and Paul, T. and Pavlidou, V. and Payet, K. and Pech, M. and Pękala, J. and Pelayo, R. and Pepe, I. M. and Perrone, L. and Pesce, R. and Petermann, E. and Petrera, S. and Petrinca, P. and Petrolini, A. and Petrov, Y. and Petrovic, J. and Pfendner, C. and Piegaia, R. and Pierog, T. and Pimenta, M. and Pirronello, V. and Platino, M. and Ponce, V. H. and Pontz, M. and Privitera, P. and Prouza, M. and Quel, E. J. and Rautenberg, J. and Ravel, O. and Ravignani, D. and Redondo, A. and Revenu, B. and Rezende, F. A. S. and Ridky, J. and Riggi, S. and Risse, M. and Ristori, P. and Rivière, C. and Rizi, V. and Robledo, C. and Rodriguez, G. and Rodriguez-Martino, J. and Rodriguez-Rojo, J. and Rodriguez-Cabo, I. and Rodríguez-Frías, M. D. and Ros, G. and Rosado, J. and Rossler, T. and Roth, M. and Rouillé-d’Orfeui, B. and Roulet, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Salamida, F. and Salazar, H. and Salina, G. and Sánchez, F. and Santander, M. and Santo, C. E. and Santos, E. and Santos, E. M. and Sarazin, F. and Sarkar, S. and Sato, R. and Scharf, N. and Scherini, V. and Schieler, H. and Schiffer, P. and Schmidt, A. and Schmidt, F. and Schmidt, T. and Scholten, O. and Schoorlemmer, H. and Schovancova, J. and Schovánek, P. and Schroeder, F. and Schulte, S. and Schüssler, F. and Schuster, D. and Sciutto, S. J. and Scuderi, M. and Segreto, A. and Semikoz, D. and Settimo, M. and Shadkam, A. and Shellard, R. C. and Sidelnik, I. and Siffert, B. B. and Sigl, G. and Śmiałkowski, A. and Šmída, R. and Snow, G. R. and Sommers, P. and Sorokin, J. and Spinka, H. and Squartini, R. and Stasielak, J. and Stephan, M. and Strazzeri, E. and Stutz, A. and Suarez, F. and Suomijärvi, T. and Supanitsky, A. D. and Šuša, T. and Sutherland, M. S. and Swain, J. and Szadkowski, Z. and Tamashiro, A. and Tamburro, A. and Tapia, A. and Tarutina, T. and Taşcău, O. and Tcaciuc, R. and Tcherniakhovski, D. and Tegolo, D. and Thao, N. T. and Thomas, D. and Tiffenberg, J. and Timmermans, C. and Tkaczyk, W. and Todero-Peixoto, C. J. and Tomé, B. and Tonachini, A. and Travnicek, P. and Tridapalli, D. B. and Tristram, G. and Trovato, E. and Tueros, M. and Ulrich, R. and Unger, M. and Urban, M. and Valdés-Galicia, J. F. and Valiño, I. and Valore, L. and van-den-Berg, A. M. and Vázquez, J. R. and Vázquez, R. A. and Veberič, D. and Venters, T. and Verzi, V. and Videla, M. and Villaseñor, L. and Vorobiov, S. and Voyvodic, L. and Wahlberg, H. and Wahrlich, P. and Wainberg, O. and Warner, D. and Watson, A. A. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Wieczorek, G. and Wiencke, L. and Wilczyńska, B. and Wilczyński, H. and Williams, C. and Winchen, T. and Winnick, M. G. and Wundheiler, B. and Yamamoto, T. and Younk, P. and Yuan, G. and Yushkov, A. and Zas, E. and Zavrtanik, D. and Zavrtanik, M. and Zaw, I. and Zepeda, A. and Ziolkowski, M. (2010) Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^(18) eV. Physical Review Letters, 104 (9). Art. No.091101. ISSN 0031-9007.

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We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X_(max), of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10^(18) eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106_(-21)^(+35)) g/cm^2/decade below 10^(18:24±0.05) eV, and (24±3) g/cm^ 2=decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm^2. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

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Stutz, A.0000-0003-2300-8200
Additional Information:© 2010 The American Physical Society. Received 7 December 2009; published 1 March 2010. The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisiόn Nacional de Energía Atόmica, Fundaciόn Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings, and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing cooperation over land access, Argentina; the Australian Research Council; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnolόgico (CNPq), Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT), Brazil; AVCR AV0Z10100502 and AV0Z10100522, GAAV KJB300100801 and KJB100100904, MSMT-CR LA08016, LC527, 1M06002, and MSM0021620859, Czech Republic; Centre de Calcul IN2P3/CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Conseil Régional Ile-de-France, Département Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire (PNC-IN2P3/CNRS), Département Sciences de l’Univers (SDU-INSU/CNRS), France; Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Finanzministerium Baden-Württemberg, Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF), Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR), Italy; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Mexico; Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), Netherlands; Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Grant No. 1 P03 D 014 30, No. N202 090 31/0623, and No. PAP/218/2006, Poland; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal; Ministry for Higher Education, Science, and Technology, Slovenian Research Agency, Slovenia; Comunidad de Madrid, Consejería de Educaciόn de la Comunidad de Castilla La Mancha, FEDER funds, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaciόn, Xunta de Galicia, Spain; Science and Technology Facilities Council, United Kingdom; Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC02- 07CH11359, No. DE-FR02-04ER41300, National Science Foundation, Grant No. 0450696, The Grainger Foundation USA; ALFA-EC/HELEN, European Union 6th Framework Program, Grant No. MEIF-CT-2005- 025057, European Union 7th Framework Program, Grant No. PIEF-GA-2008-220240, and UNESCO.
Classification Code: PACS:, 13.85.Tp,, 98.70.Sa
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20100415-075729464
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Official Citation:Pierre Auger, C., J. Abraham, et al. (2010). "Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 1018 eV." Physical Review Letters 104(9): 091101.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:17985
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:14 May 2010 18:37
Last Modified:16 Oct 2018 20:15

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