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Composite nanostructured solid-acid fuel-cell electrodes via electrospray deposition

Varga, Áron and Brunelli, Nicholas A. and Louie, Mary W. and Giapis, Konstantinos P. and Haile, Sossina M. (2010) Composite nanostructured solid-acid fuel-cell electrodes via electrospray deposition. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2010 (20). pp. 6309-6315. ISSN 0959-9428. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100810-112940481

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Abstract

Stable, porous, nanostructured composite electrodes were successfully fabricated via the inexpensive and scalable method of electrospray deposition, in which a dissolved solute is deposited onto a substrate using an electric field to drive droplet migration. The desirable characteristics of high porosity and high surface area were obtained under conditions that favored complete solvent evaporation from the electrospray droplets prior to contact with the substrate. Solid acid (CsH_2PO_4) feature sizes of 100 nm were obtained from electrosprayed water–methanol solutions with 10 g L^(−1) CsH_2PO_4 and 5 g L^(−1) Pt catalyst particles suspended using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Alternative additives such as Pt on carbon and carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) were also successfully incorporated by this route, and in all cases the PVP could be removed from the electrode by oxygen plasma treatment without damage to the structure. In the absence of additives (Pt, Pt/C and CNTs), the feature sizes were larger, 300 nm, and the structure morphologically unstable, with significant coarsening evident after exposure to ambient conditions for just two days. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under humidified hydrogen at 240 °C indicated an interfacial impedance of ~1.5 Ω cm^2 for the Pt/CsH_2PO_4 composite electrodes with a total Pt loading of 0.3 ± 0.2 mg cm^(−2). This result corresponds to a 30-fold decrease in Pt loading relative to mechanically milled electrodes with comparable activity, but further increases in activity and Pt utilization are required if solid acid fuel cells are to attain widespread commercial adoption.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0jm00216j DOIArticle
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2010/JM/c0jm00216jPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Giapis, Konstantinos P.0000-0002-7393-298X
Haile, Sossina M.0000-0002-5293-6252
Additional Information:© 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Received 30th January 2010, Accepted 24th March 2010. Funding for this project was provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through the Caltech Center for Sustainable Energy Research, and by the Airforce Research Office, through a the subaward from Superprotonic, Inc. Additional support was provided by the National Science Foundation through the Caltech Center for the Science and Engineering of Materials, a Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (DMR-052056). The authors thank Dr Chi Ma and Prof. George Rossman for assistance, respectively, with scanning electron microscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)UNSPECIFIED
NSFDMR-052056
Superprotonic, Inc.UNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20100810-112940481
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100810-112940481
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:19369
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Aug 2010 20:33
Last Modified:01 Sep 2017 20:42

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