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Coseismic surface deformation from air photos: The Kickapoo step over in the 1992 Landers rupture

Michel, Rémi and Avouac, Jean-Philippe (2006) Coseismic surface deformation from air photos: The Kickapoo step over in the 1992 Landers rupture. Journal of Geophysical Research B, 111 (B3). Art. No. B03408 . ISSN 0148-0227. doi:10.1029/2005JB003776.

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Coseismic deformation of the ground can be measured from aerial views taken before and after an earthquake. We chose the area of the Kickapoo-Landers step over along the 1992 Landers earthquake zone, using air photos (scale 1:40,000) scanned at 0.4 m resolution. Two photos acquired after the earthquake are used to assess the accuracy and to evaluate various sources of noise. Optical distortions, film deformation, scanning errors, or errors in viewing parameters can yield metric bias at wavelength larger than 1 km. Offset field at shorter wavelength is more reliable and mainly affected by temporal decorrelation of the images induced by changes in radiometry with time. Temporal decorrelation and resulting uncertainty on offsets are estimated locally from the correlation degree between the images. Relative surface displacements are measured independently every about 15 m and with uncertainty typically below 10 cm (RMS). The offset field reveals most of the surface ruptures mapped in the field. The fault slip is accurate to about 7 cm (RMS) and measured independently every 200 m from stacked profiles. Slip distribution compares well with field measurements at the kilometric scale but reveals local discrepancies suggesting that deformation is generally, although not systematically, localized on the major fault zone located in the field. This type of data can provide useful insight into the fault zone's mechanical properties. Our measurements indicate that elastic coseismic strain near the fault zone can be as large as 0.5 × 10^(−3), while anelastic yielding was attained for strain in excess of about 1–2 × 10^(−3).

Item Type:Article
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Avouac, Jean-Philippe0000-0002-3060-8442
Additional Information:© 2006 American Geophysical Union. Received 11 April 2005; revised 13 September 2005; accepted 16 November 2005; published 21 March 2006. This paper has benefited greatly from reviews by two anonymous reviewers and the AE Sandy Steacy. This study was supported by the Action Concertée Incitative "Catastrophes Naturelles" of INSU. We thank NSF for partial support through grant EAR- 0409652. This is Tectonics Observatory contribution 14.
Group:Caltech Tectonics Observatory, Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:earthquake; remote sensing; slip distribution
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Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Caltech Tectonics Observatory14
Issue or Number:B3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20101117-091646628
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Official Citation:Michel, R., and J.-P. Avouac (2006), Coseismic surface deformation from air photos: The Kickapoo step over in the 1992 Landers rupture, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B03408, doi:10.1029/2005JB003776
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:20846
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Nov 2010 18:30
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 00:03

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