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Herschel observations of embedded protostellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud

Hennemann, M. and Ali, B. (2010) Herschel observations of embedded protostellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 518 . L84. ISSN 0004-6361.

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The Herschel OB young stellar objects survey (HOBYS) has observed the Rosette molecular cloud, providing an unprecedented view of its star formation activity. These new far-infrared data reveal a population of compact young stellar objects whose physical properties we aim to characterise. We compiled a sample of protostars and their spectral energy distributions that covers the near-infrared to submillimetre wavelength range. These were used to constrain key properties in the protostellar evolution, bolometric luminosity, and envelope mass and to build an evolutionary diagram. Several clusters are distinguished including the cloud centre, the embedded clusters in the vicinity of luminous infrared sources, and the interaction region. The analysed protostellar population in Rosette ranges from 0.1 to about 15 M_☉ with luminosities between 1 and 150 L_☉, which extends the evolutionary diagram from low-mass protostars into the high-mass regime. Some sources lack counterparts at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths, indicating extreme youth. The central cluster and the Phelps & Lada 7 cluster appear less evolved than the remainder of the analysed protostellar population. For the central cluster, we find indications that about 25% of the protostars classified as Class I from near- to mid-infrared data are actually candidate Class 0 objects. As a showcase for protostellar evolution, we analysed four protostars of low- to intermediate-mass in a single dense core, and they represent different evolutionary stages from Class 0 to Class I. Their mid- to far-infrared spectral slopes flatten towards the Class I stage, and the 160 to 70 μm flux ratio is greatest for the presumed Class 0 source. This shows that the Herschel observations characterise the earliest stages of protostellar evolution in detail.

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Additional Information:© 2010 ESO. Received 31 March 2010; Accepted 2 May 2010; Published online 16 July 2010. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff Univ. (UK) and including Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC (UK); and NASA (USA). PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAF-IFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESAPRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/MCYT (Spain). Part of this work was supported by the ANR (Agence Nationale pour la Recherche) project “PROBeS”, number ANR-08-BLAN-0241. We thank the anonymous referee for helpful comments.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Canadian Space Agency (CSA) (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA) (France)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) (France)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (France)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) (Italy)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICIIN) (Spain)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) (Sweden)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (BMVIT) (Austria)UNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency-PROgramme for the Development of scientific EXperiments (ESA-PRODEX) (Belgium)UNSPECIFIED
Deutschland für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) (Germany)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana/Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (ASI/INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-08-BLAN-0241
Subject Keywords:stars: formation; stars: protostars; ISM: individual objects: Rosette
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20101118-114849950
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Official Citation:Herschel observations of embedded protostellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud M. Hennemann, F. Motte, S. Bontemps, N. Schneider, T. Csengeri, Z. Balog, J. Di Francesco, A. Zavagno, Ph. André, A. Men'shchikov, A. Abergel, B. Ali, J.-P. Baluteau, J.-Ph. Bernard, P. Cox, P. Didelon, A.-M. di Giorgio, M. Griffin, P. Hargrave, T. Hill, B. Horeau, M. Huang, J. Kirk, S. Leeks, J. Z. Li, A. Marston, P. Martin, S. Molinari, Q. Nguyen Luong, G. Olofsson, P. Persi, S. Pezzuto, D. Russeil, P. Saraceno, M. Sauvage, B. Sibthorpe, L. Spinoglio, L. Testi, D. Ward-Thompson, G. White, C. Wilson and A. Woodcraft A&A 518 L84 (2010) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014629
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:20895
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:18 Nov 2010 22:04
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 02:16

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