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Water abundances in high-mass protostellar envelopes: Herschel observations with HIFI

Marseille, M. G. and Blake, G. A. and Lis, D. (2010) Water abundances in high-mass protostellar envelopes: Herschel observations with HIFI. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 521 . Art. No. L32. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Aims. We derive the dense core structure and the water abundance in four massive star-forming regions in the hope of understanding the earliest stages of massive star formation. Methods. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the para-H_2O 1_(11)−0_(00) and 2_(02)−1_(11) and the para-H^(18)_2 O 1_(11)−0_(00) transitions. The envelope contribution to the line profiles is separated from contributions by outflows and foreground clouds. The envelope contribution is modeled with Monte-Carlo radiative transfer codes for dust and molecular lines (MC3D and RATRAN), and the water abundance and the turbulent velocity width as free parameters. Results. While the outflows are mostly seen in emission in high-J lines, envelopes are seen in absorption in ground-state lines, which are almost saturated. The derived water abundances range from 5 × 10^(−10) to 4 × 10^(−8) in the outer envelopes. We detect cold clouds surrounding the protostar envelope, thanks to the very high quality of the Herschel/HIFI data and the unique ability of water to probe them. Several foreground clouds are also detected along the line of sight. Conclusions. The low H_2O abundances in massive dense cores are in accordance with the expectation that high densities and low temperatures lead to freeze-out of water on dust grains. The spread in abundance values is not clearly linked to physical properties of the sources.

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Blake, G. A.0000-0003-0787-1610
Lis, D.0000-0002-0500-4700
Additional Information:© 2010 ESO. Received 31 May 2010, Accepted 15 July 2010, Published online 01 October 2010. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation of NASA. Appendix (pages 6 to 7) is only available in electronic form at HIFI has been designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments from across Europe, Canada, and the United States under the leadership of SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Groningen, The Netherlands, and with major contributions from Germany, France, and the US. Consortium members are: Canada: CSA, U. Waterloo; France: CESR, LAB, LERMA, IRAM; Germany: KOSMA, MPIfR, MPS; Ireland, NUI Maynooth; Italy: ASI, IFSI-INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri- INAF; Netherlands: SRON, TUD; Poland: CAMK, CBK; Spain: Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA). Sweden: Chalmers University of Technology – MC2, RSS & GARD; Onsala Space Observatory; Swedish National Space Board, Stockholm University – Stockholm Observatory; Switzerland: ETH Zurich, FHNW; USA: Caltech, JPL, NHSC. HIPE is a joint development by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE consortia.
Subject Keywords:dust, extinction – ISM: molecules – ISM: abundances
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20101230-102322196
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Official Citation:Water abundances in high-mass protostellar envelopes: Herschel observations with HIFI M. G. Marseille, F. F. S. van der Tak, F. Herpin, F. Wyrowski, L. Chavarría, B. Pietropaoli, A. Baudry, S. Bontemps, J. Cernicharo, T. Jacq, W. Frieswijk, R. Shipman, E. F. van Dishoeck, R. Bachiller, M. Benedettini, A. O. Benz, E. Bergin, P. Bjerkeli, G. A. Blake, J. Braine, S. Bruderer, P. Caselli, E. Caux, C. Codella, F. Daniel, P. Dieleman, A. M. di Giorgio, C. Dominik, S. D. Doty, P. Encrenaz, M. Fich, A. Fuente, T. Gaier, T. Giannini, J. R. Goicoechea, Th. de Graauw, F. Helmich, G. J. Herczeg, M. R. Hogerheijde, B. Jackson, H. Javadi, W. Jellema, D. Johnstone, J. K. Jørgensen, D. Kester, L. E. Kristensen, B. Larsson, W. Laauwen, D. Lis, R. Liseau, W. Luinge, C. McCoey, A. Megej, G. Melnick, D. Neufeld, B. Nisini, M. Olberg, B. Parise, J. C. Pearson, R. Plume, C. Risacher, P. Roelfsema, J. Santiago-García, P. Saraceno, P. Siegel, J. Stutzki, M. Tafalla, T. A. van Kempen, R. Visser, S. F. Wampfler and U. A. Yıldız A&A 521 L32 (2010) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015103
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:21522
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:03 Jan 2011 17:01
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 02:25

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