A Caltech Library Service

Distortion of a free surface during tank discharge

Gluck, D. F. and Gille, J. P. and Zukoski, E. E. and Simkin, D. J. (1966) Distortion of a free surface during tank discharge. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 3 (11). pp. 1691-1692. ISSN 0022-4650. doi:10.2514/3.28731.

[img] PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


During the process of withdrawing fluids from tanks, surface distortion and subsequent gas ingestion have been observed in situations where no liquid rotation was present. The distortion takes the form of a depression of the liquid surface over the outlet, which leads to ingestion of gas in the outlet line before all of the liquid has drained from the tank. This phenomenon becomes more important as the fluid flow rate is increased. The flow of fluids from tanks, under conditions that lead to gas ingestion, has been studied with emphasis on a theoretical solution, e.g., Abramson et al. and Saad and Oliver. However, no results applicable to the problem studied here have been obtained, and to the authors' knowledge, no comprehensive experimental study of the ingestion phenomenon has been undertaken prior to this work. This paper describes the results of such an investigation for flat-bottomed, right cylindric tanks with right cylindric outlets located on the tank centerline. The work discussed here deals primarily with the determination of the maximum height of the liquid surface when the surface distortion reaches the outlet. This distance is called the "gas ingestion" height, h. This note extends the experimental work and correlation of Ref. 3. A more complete description of the theoretical work is presented in Ref. 3.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Additional Information:© 1966 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Received June 30, 1966.
Group:Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Center
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Guggenheim Jet Propulsion CenterUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:11
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110104-080049601
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Distortion of a free surface during tank discharge. GILLE, J. P., ; GLUCK, D. F., ; SIMKIN, D. J. NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, INC., SPACE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS DIV., DOWNEY, CALIF., ; ZUKOSKI, E. E., CALIFORNIA INST. OF TECH., PASADENA, CALIF., JOURNAL OF SPACECRAFT AND ROCKETS 1966 0022-4650 vol.3 no.11 (1691-1692) doi: 10.2514/3.28731
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:21558
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:25 Jan 2011 16:10
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 15:58

Repository Staff Only: item control page