A Caltech Library Service

Luminosity functions of local infrared galaxies with AKARI: implications for the cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution

Goto, Tomotsugu and Arnouts, Stephane and Inami, Hanae and Matsuhara, Hideo and Pearson, Chris and Takeuchi, Tsutomu T. and Le Floc'h, Emeric and Takagi, Toshinobu and Wada, Takehiko and Nakagawa, Takao and Oyabu, Shinki and Ishihara, Daisuke and Lee, Hyung Mok and Jeong, Woong-Seob and Yamauchi, Chisato and Serjeant, Stephen and Sedgwick, Chris and Treister, Ezequiel (2011) Luminosity functions of local infrared galaxies with AKARI: implications for the cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 410 (1). pp. 573-584. ISSN 0035-8711.

PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Infrared (IR) luminosity is fundamental to understanding the cosmic star formation history and active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution, since their most intense stages are often obscured by dust. However, local IR luminosity function estimates today are still based on the IRAS survey in the 1980s, with wavelength coverage only up to 100 μm. The AKARI IR space telescope performed an all-sky survey in six IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 μm) with 3–10 times better sensitivity, covering the crucial far-IR wavelengths across the peak of the dust emission. Combined with a better spatial resolution, AKARI can much more precisely measure the total infrared luminosity (L_(TIR)) of individual galaxies, and thus, the total infrared luminosity density in the local Universe. By fitting modern IR spectral energy distribution (SED) models, we have remeasured L_(TIR) of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample, which is a complete sample of local galaxies with S_(60μm) > 5.24 Jy. We present mid-IR monochromatic luminosity (νL_ν) to L_(TIR) correlations for Spitzer 8 μm, AKARI 9 μm, IRAS 12 μm, WISE 12 μm, ISO 15 μm, AKARI 18 μm, WISE 22 μm and Spitzer 24 μm filters. These measures of L_(MIR) are well correlated with L_(TIR), with scatter in the range 13–44 per cent. The best-fitting L_(MIR)-to-L_(TIR) conversions provide us with estimates of L_(TIR) using only a single MIR band, in which several deep all-sky surveys are becoming available such as AKARI MIR and WISE. Although we have found some overestimates of L_(TIR) by IRAS due to contaminating cirrus/ sources, the resulting AKARI IR luminosity function (LF) agrees well with that from IRAS. We integrate the LF weighted by L_(TIR) to obtain a cosmic IR luminosity density of Ω_(TIR) = (8.5^(+1.5)_(−2.3)) × 10^7 L_⊙ Mpc^(−3), of which 7 ± 1 per cent is produced by luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) (L_(TIR) > 10^(11) L_⊙), and only 0.4 ± 0.1 per cent is from ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L_(TIR) > 10^(12) L_⊙) in the local Universe, in stark contrast to high-redshift results. We separate the contributions from AGN and star-forming galaxies (SFGs). The SFG IR LF shows a steep decline at the bright end. Combined with high-redshift results from the AKARI NEP deep survey, these data show a strong evolution of Ω^(SF)_(TIR) ∝ (1 + z)^(4.0 ± 0.5) and Ω^(AGN)_(TIR) ∝ (1 + z)^(4.4 ± 0.4). For Ω^(AGN)_(TIR), the ULIRG contribution exceeds that from LIRGs already by z ~ 1. A rapid evolution in both Ω^(AGN)_(TIR) and Ω^(SFG)_(TIR) suggests the correlation between star formation and black hole accretion rate continues up to higher redshifts. We compare the evolution of Ω^(AGN)_(TIR) to that of X-ray luminosity density. The Ω^(AGN)_(TIR)/Ω^(AGN)_(X-ray) ratio shows a possible increase at z > 1, suggesting an increase of obscured AGN at z > 1.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Pearson, Chris0000-0001-6139-649X
Additional Information:© 2010 The Authors. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2010 RAS. Accepted 2010 July 30. Received 2010 July 26; in original form 2010 April 28. Article first published online: 26 Nov. 2010. We thank the anonymous referee for many insightful comments, which significantly improved the paper. We are indebted to M. Malkan for many valuable comments and suggestions. We thank D. Sanders and J. M. Mazzarella for useful discussions. TG acknowledges financial support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through JSPS Research Fellowships for Young Scientists. This research is based on the observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this sacred mountain. Support for the work of ET was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra Postdoctoral Fellowship Award Number PF8-90055 issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060. TTT has been supported by the Program for Improvement of Research Environment for Young Researchers from Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, and the Grant-in-Aid for the Scientific Research Fund (20740105) commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. TTT has been also partially supported from the Grand-in-Aid for the Global COE Program ‘Quest for Fundamental Principles in the Universe: from Particles to the Solar System and the Cosmos’ from the MEXT.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) UNSPECIFIED
NASAPF8-90055 NAS8-03060
Special Co-ordination Funds for Promoting Science and TechnologyUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)20740105
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution – galaxies: formation – galaxies: interactions – galaxies: peculiar – galaxies: starburst – infrared: galaxies.
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110125-152345080
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Goto, T., Arnouts, S., Inami, H., Matsuhara, H., Pearson, C., Takeuchi, T. T., Le Floc'h, E., Takagi, T., Wada, T., Nakagawa, T., Oyabu, S., Ishihara, D., Mok Lee, H., Jeong, W.-S., Yamauchi, C., Serjeant, S., Sedgwick, C. and Treister, E. (2011), Luminosity functions of local infrared galaxies with AKARI: implications for the cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 410: 573–584. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17466.x
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:21890
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:26 Jan 2011 15:58
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 02:31

Repository Staff Only: item control page