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A mature cluster with X-ray emission at z = 2.07

Gobat, R. and Daddi, E. and Onodera, M. and Finoguenov, A. and Renzini, A. and Arimoto, N. and Bouwens, R. and Brusa, M. and Chary, R.-R. and Cimatti, A. and Dickinson, M. and Kong, X. and Mignoli, M. (2011) A mature cluster with X-ray emission at z = 2.07. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 526 . Art. No. A133. ISSN 0004-6361.

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We report evidence of a fully established galaxy cluster at z = 2.07, consisting of a ~20σ overdensity of red, compact spheroidal galaxies spatially coinciding with extended X-ray emission detected with XMM-Newton. We use VLT VIMOS and FORS2 spectra and deep Subaru, VLT and Spitzer imaging to estimate the redshift of the structure from a prominent z = 2.07 spectroscopic redshift spike of emission-line galaxies, concordant with the accurate 12-band photometric redshifts of the red galaxies. Using NICMOS and Keck AO observations, we find that the red galaxies have elliptical morphologies and compact cores. While they do not form a tight red sequence, their colours are consistent with that of a ≳1.3 Gyr population observed at z ~ 2.1. From an X-ray luminosity of 7.2×10^(43) erg sV(-1) and the stellar mass content of the red galaxy population, we estimate a halo mass of 5.3–8×10^(13) M_☉, comparable to the nearby Virgo cluster. These properties imply that this structure could be the most distant, mature cluster known to date and that X-ray luminous, elliptical-dominated clusters are already forming at substantially earlier epochs than previously known.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Daddi, E.0000-0002-3331-9590
Finoguenov, A.0000-0002-4606-5403
Renzini, A.0000-0002-7093-7355
Bouwens, R.0000-0002-4989-2471
Brusa, M.0000-0002-5059-6848
Chary, R.-R.0000-0001-7583-0621
Dickinson, M.0000-0001-5414-5131
Additional Information:© 2011 ESO. Received 5 November 2010. Accepted 16 November 2010. Published online 11 January 2011. This work is based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory, under programmes 072.A-0506 and 381.A-0567; and on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Support for programme #11174 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We acknowledge funding ERC-StGUPGAL- 240039, ANR-07-BLAN-0228 and ANR-08-JCJC-0008 and Alvio Renzini acknowledges financial support from contract ASI/COFIS I/016/07/0. This work is partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Science Research (No.19540245) by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. We thank Romain Teyssier for his help with the cosmological calculations, Monique Arnaud, David Elbaz and Piero Rosati for discussions.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
Space Telescope Science InstituteUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UPGAL-240039
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-07-BLAN-0228
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-08-JCJC-0008
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I/026/07/0
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)19540245
Subject Keywords:galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: clusters: individual: CL J1449-0856; galaxies: high-redshift; large-scale structure of Universe
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110222-141140962
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:22433
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:22 Feb 2011 23:05
Last Modified:14 Dec 2019 05:35

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