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The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores. I. First Direct Detection of the Embedded Source in IRAM 04191+1522

Dunham, Michael M. and Evans, Neal J., II and Bourke, Tyler L. and Dullemond, Cornelis P. and Young, Chadwick H. and Brooke, Timothy Y. and Chapman, Nicholas and Myers, Philip C. and Porras, Alicia and Spiesman, William and Teuben, Peter J. and Wahhaj, Zahed (2006) The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores. I. First Direct Detection of the Embedded Source in IRAM 04191+1522. Astrophysical Journal, 651 (2). pp. 945-959. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We report the first detections of the Class 0 protostellar source IRAM 04191+1522 at wavelengths shortward of 60 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We see extended emission in the Spitzer images that suggests the presence of an outflow cavity in the circumstellar envelope. We combine the Spitzer observations with existing data to form a complete data set ranging from 3.6 to 1300 μm and use these data to construct radiative transfer models of the source. We conclude that the internal luminosity of IRAM 04191+1522, defined to be the sum of the luminosity from the internal sources (a star and a disk), is L_(int) = 0.08 ± 0.04 L_⊙, placing it among the lowest luminosity protostars known. Although it was discovered before the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope, IRAM 04191+1522 falls within a new class of very low luminosity objects being discovered by Spitzer. Unlike the two other well-studied objects in this class, which are associated either with weak, compact outflows or no outflows at all, IRAM 04191+1522 has a well-defined molecular outflow with properties consistent with those expected based on relations derived from higher luminosity (L_(int) ≥ 1 L_⊙) protostars. We discuss the difficulties in understanding IRAM 04191+1522 in the context of the standard model of star formation and suggest a possible explanation for the very low luminosity of this source.

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Dunham, Michael M.0000-0003-0749-9505
Evans, Neal J., II0000-0001-5175-1777
Wahhaj, Zahed0000-0001-8269-324X
Additional Information:© 2006 American Astronomical Society. Received 2006 March 24; accepted 2006 July 24. We would like to thank Chin-Fei Lee for allowing us to present his BIMA data in this work, Jes Jørgensen for his IDL scripts to display three-color images, and the Lorentz Center in Leiden for hosting several meetings that contributed to this paper. We express our gratitude to the anonymous referee for insightful and thoughtful comments that have greatly improved this paper. This publication makes use of the Protostars World Wide Web site hosted by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, as well as data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. Support for this work, part of the Spitzer Legacy Science Program, was provided by NASA through contracts 1224608 and 1230782 issued by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407. Support was also provided by NASA Origins grant NNG04GG24G.
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Subject Keywords:ISM: individual (IRAM 04191+1522) — stars: formation — stars: low-mass, brown dwarfs
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110304-091553758
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Official Citation:Michael M. Dunham et al. 2006 ApJ 651 945 doi: 10.1086/508051
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:22661
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:04 Mar 2011 17:46
Last Modified:01 Nov 2019 23:34

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