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Improving the sensitivity of future GW observatories in the 1-10 Hz band: Newtonian and seismic noise

Beker, M. G. and Cella, G. and DeSalvo, R. and Doets, M. and Grote, H. and Harms, J. and Hennes, E. and Mandic, V. and Rabeling, D. S. and van den Brand, J. F. J. and van Leeuwen, C. M. (2011) Improving the sensitivity of future GW observatories in the 1-10 Hz band: Newtonian and seismic noise. General Relativity and Gravitation, 43 (2). pp. 623-656. ISSN 0001-7701.

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The next generation gravitational wave interferometric detectors will likely be underground detectors to extend the GW detection frequency band to frequencies below the Newtonian noise limit. Newtonian noise originates from the continuous motion of the Earth’s crust driven by human activity, tidal stresses and seismic motion, and from mass density fluctuations in the atmosphere. It is calculated that on Earth’s surface, on a typical day, it will exceed the expected GW signals at frequencies below 10 Hz. The noise will decrease underground by an unknown amount. It is important to investigate and to quantify this expected reduction and its effect on the sensitivity of future detectors, to plan for further improvement strategies. We report about some of these aspects. Analytical models can be used in the simplest scenarios to get a better qualitative and semi-quantitative understanding. As more complete modeling can be done numerically, we will discuss also some results obtained with a finite-element-based modeling tool. The method is verified by comparing its results with the results of analytic calculations for surface detectors. A key point about noise models is their initial parameters and conditions, which require detailed information about seismic motion in a real scenario. We will describe an effort to characterize the seismic activity at the Homestake mine which is currently in progress. This activity is specifically aimed to provide informations and to explore the site as a possible candidate for an underground observatory. Although the only compelling reason to put the interferometer underground is to reduce the Newtonian noise, we expect that the more stable underground environment will have a more general positive impact on the sensitivity.We will end this report with some considerations about seismic and suspension noise.

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Harms, J.0000-0002-7332-9806
Additional Information:© 2011 Springer. Received: 10 August 2009. Accepted: 7 May 2010. Published online: 23 May 2010. This article is published with open access at We are grateful to Dr. Rudolf Widmer-Schnidrig from the University of Stuttgart for permission to use Fig. (3). This work is part of the research programme of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is financially supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Funding and support of this study is also provided by The National Science Foundation through the LIGO cooperative agreement and the Minnesota U. grant.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research on Matter (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
NSF/LIGO/Minnesota UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Gravitational waves; Noises
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110315-091123604
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Official Citation:Improving the sensitivity of future GW observatories in the 1–10 Hz band: Newtonian and seismic noise Journal Name: General Relativity and Gravitation Cover Date: 2011-02-01 Publisher: Springer Netherlands Issn: 0001-7701 Subject: Physics and Astronomy Start Page: 623 End Page: 656 Volume: 43 Issue: 2 Url: Doi: 10.1007/s10714-010-1011-7
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:22885
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:15 Mar 2011 21:49
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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