A Caltech Library Service

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL

Wang, S. and Lis, D. C. and Bell, T. A. and Blake, G. A. and Latter, W. B. and Lord, S. D. and Morris, P. and Phillips, T. G. and Zmuidzinas, J. (2011) Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 527 . Art. No. A95. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015079.

PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We have examined methanol emission from Orion KL withthe Herschel/HIFI instrument, and detected two methanol bands centered at 524 GHz and 1061 GHz. The 524 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 1a) is dominated by the isolated ΔJ = 0, K = −4 → −3, v_t = 0 Q branch, and includes 25 E-type and 2 A-type transitions. The 1061 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 4b) is dominated by the ΔJ = 0, K = 7 → 6, v_t = 0 Q branch transitions which are mostly blended. We have used the isolated E-type v_t = 0 methanol transitions to explore the physical conditions in the molecular gas. With HIFI’s high velocity resolution, the methanol emission contributed by different spatial components along the line of sight toward Orion KL (hot core, low velocity flow, and compact ridge) can be distinguished and studied separately. The isolated transitions detected in these bands cover a broad energy range (upper state energy ranging from 80 K to 900 K), which provides a unique probe of the thermal structure in each spatial component. The observations further show that the compact ridge is externally heated. These observations demonstrate the power of methanol lines as probes of the physical conditions in warm regions in close proximity to young stars.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Wang, S.0000-0002-6937-9034
Lis, D. C.0000-0002-0500-4700
Blake, G. A.0000-0003-0787-1610
Additional Information:© ESO 2011. Received 28 May 2010, Accepted 21 December 2010, Published online 01 February 2011. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. HIFI has been designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments from across Europe, Canada and the United States under the leadership of SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Groningen, The Netherlands and with major contributions from Germany, France and the US. Consortium members are: Canada: CSA, U. Waterloo; France: CESR, LAB, LERMA, IRAM; Germany: KOSMA, MPIfR, MPS; Ireland, NUI Maynooth; Italy: ASI, IFSI-INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri– INAF; The Netherlands: SRON, TUD; Poland: CAMK, CBK; Spain: Observatorio Astronmico Nacional (IGN), Centro de Astrobiologa (CSIC-INTA). Sweden: Chalmers University of Technology – MC2, RSS & GARD; Onsala Space Observatory; Swedish National Space Board, Stockholm University – Stockholm Observatory; Switzerland: ETH Zurich, FHNW; USA: Caltech, JPL, NHSC. The HEXOS team also is grateful to the HIFI instrument team for building a fantastic instrument. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:ISM: abundances – ISM: molecules
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110318-150102284
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL S. Wang, E. A. Bergin, N. R. Crockett, P. F. Goldsmith, D. C. Lis, J. C. Pearson, P. Schilke, T. A. Bell, C. Comito, G. A. Blake, E. Caux, C. Ceccarelli, J. Cernicharo, F. Daniel, M.-L. Dubernet, M. Emprechtinger, P. Encrenaz, M. Gerin, T. F. Giesen, J. R. Goicoechea, H. Gupta, E. Herbst, C. Joblin, D. Johnstone, W. D. Langer, W. B. Latter, S. D. Lord, S. Maret, P. G. Martin, G. J. Melnick, K. M. Menten, P. Morris, H. S. P. Müller, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Neufeld, V. Ossenkopf, M. Pérault, T. G. Phillips, R. Plume, S.-L. Qin, S. Schlemmer, J. Stutzki, N. Trappe, F. F. S. van der Tak, C. Vastel, H. W. Yorke, S. Yu and J. Zmuidzinas A&A 527 A95 (2011) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015079
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:22991
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:18 Mar 2011 22:52
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 16:10

Repository Staff Only: item control page