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Water in Star-forming Regions with the Herschel Space Observatory (WISH). I. Overview of Key Program and First Results

van Dishoeck, E. F. and Blake, G. A. and Lis, D. (2011) Water in Star-forming Regions with the Herschel Space Observatory (WISH). I. Overview of Key Program and First Results. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 123 (900). pp. 138-170. ISSN 0004-6280.

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Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a key program on the Herschel Space Observatory designed to probe the physical and chemical structures of young stellar objects using water and related molecules and to follow the water abundance from collapsing clouds to planet-forming disks. About 80 sources are targeted, covering a wide range of luminosities—from low (< 1 L_⊙) to high (>10^5 L_⊙)—and a wide range of evolutionary stages—from cold prestellar cores to warm protostellar envelopes and outflows to disks around young stars. Both the HIFI and PACS instruments are used to observe a variety of lines of H_2O, H_2^(18)O and chemically related species at the source position and in small maps around the protostars and selected outflow positions. In addition, high-frequency lines of CO, ^(13)CO, and C^(18)O are obtained with Herschel and are complemented by ground-based observations of dust continuum, HDO, CO and its isotopologs, and other molecules to ensure a self-consistent data set for analysis. An overview of the scientific motivation and observational strategy of the program is given, together with the modeling approach and analysis tools that have been developed. Initial science results are presented. These include a lack of water in cold gas at abundances that are lower than most predictions, strong water emission from shocks in protostellar environments, the importance of UV radiation in heating the gas along outflow walls across the full range of luminosities, and surprisingly widespread detection of the chemically related hydrides OH^+ and H_2O^+ in outflows and foreground gas. Quantitative estimates of the energy budget indicate that H_2O is generally not the dominant coolant in the warm dense gas associated with protostars. Very deep limits on the cold gaseous water reservoir in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks are obtained that have profound implications for our understanding of grain growth and mixing in disks.

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van Dishoeck, E. F.0000-0001-7591-1907
Blake, G. A.0000-0003-0787-1610
Lis, D.0000-0002-0500-4700
Additional Information:© 2011 Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Received 2010 October 18; accepted 2010 December 14; published 2011 February 11. The authors are grateful to the HIFI project scientist, Xander Tielens, for helping to ensure the powerful HIFI capabilities for water observations and for his encouragements over the last decade. They salute the HIFI and PACS instrument builders for providing two superb scientific instruments, and they are much indebted to the laboratory and theoretical chemistry groups for providing the necessary molecular data to analyze and interpret the water data. They thank the referee, David Hollenbach, for his constructive comments on the manuscript, Laurent Wiesenfeld for helpful discussions on the H2O - H2 collisional rate coefficients, and many funding agencies for their financial support. HIFI has been designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments from across Europe, Canada, and the United States under the leadership of SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Groningen, The Netherlands) and with major contributions from Germany, France, and the United States. Consortium members are Canada: CSA and University of Waterloo; France: CESR, LAB, LERMA, and IRAM; Germany: KOSMA, MPIfR, and MPS; Ireland: NUI Maynooth; Italy: ASI, IFSI-INAF, and Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri-INAF; Netherlands: SRON and TUD; Poland: CAMK and CBK; Spain: Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN) and Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA). Sweden: Chalmers University of Technology-MC2, RSS & GARD, Onsala Space Observatory, Swedish National Space Board, and Stockholm University—Stockholm Observatory; Switzerland: ETH Zurich and FHNW; United States: California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and NHSC. HCSS/HSpot/HIPE are joint developments by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI), Photoconducting Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) consortia.
Issue or Number:900
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110323-110459903
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Official Citation:Water in Star-forming Regions with the Herschel Space Observatory (WISH). I. Overview of Key Program and First Results E. F. van Dishoeck, L. E. Kristensen, A. O. Benz, E. A. Bergin, P. Caselli, J. Cernicharo, F. Herpin, M. R. Hogerheijde, D. Johnstone, R. Liseau, B. Nisini, R. Shipman, M. Tafalla, F. van der Tak, F. Wyrowski, Y. Aikawa, R. Bachiller, A. Baudry, M. Benedettini, P. Bjerkeli, G. A. Blake, S. Bontemps, J. Braine, C. Brinch, S. Bruderer, L. Chavarría, C. Codella, F. Daniel, Th. de Graauw, E. Deul, A. M. di Giorgio, C. Dominik, S. D. Doty, M. L. Dubernet, P. Encrenaz, H. Feuchtgruber, M. Fich, W. Frieswijk, A. Fuente, T. Giannini, J. R. Goicoechea, F. P. Helmich, G. J. Herczeg, T. Jacq, J. K. Jørgensen, A. Karska, M. J. Kaufman, E. Keto, B. Larsson, B. Lefloch, D. Lis, M. Marseille, C. McCoey, G. Melnick, D. Neufeld, M. Olberg, L. Pagani, O. Panić, B. Parise, J. C. Pearson, R. Plume, C. Risacher, D. Salter, J. Santiago-García, P. Saraceno, P. Stäuber, T. A. van Kempen, R. Visser, S. Viti, M. Walmsley, S. F. Wampfler and U. A. Yıldız Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Vol. 123, No. 900 (February 2011), pp. 138-170 Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Article DOI: 10.1086/658676 Article Stable URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:23075
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 Mar 2011 21:16
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 02:43

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