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The North American and Pelican Nebulae. II. MIPS Observations and Analysis

Rebull, L. M. and Guieu, S. and Stauffer, J. R. and Hillenbrand, L. A. and Noriega-Crespo, A. and Stapelfeldt, K. R. and Carey, S. J. and Carpenter, J. M. and Cole, D. M. and Padgett, D. L. and Strom, S. E. and Wolff, S. C. (2011) The North American and Pelican Nebulae. II. MIPS Observations and Analysis. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 193 (2). Art. No. 25. ISSN 0067-0049.

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We present observations of ~7 deg^2 of the North American and Pelican Nebulae region at 24, 70, and 160 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We incorporate the MIPS observations with earlier Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations, as well as archival near-infrared (IR) and optical data. We use the MIPS data to identify 1286 young stellar object (YSO) candidates. IRAC data alone can identify 806 more YSO candidates, for a total of 2076 YSO candidates. Prior to the Spitzer observations, there were only ~200 YSOs known in this region. Three subregions within the complex are highlighted as clusters: the Gulf of Mexico, the Pelican, and the Pelican's Hat. The Gulf of Mexico cluster is subject to the highest extinction (AV at least ~30) and has the widest range of infrared colors of the three clusters, including the largest excesses and by far the most point-source detections at 70 μm. Just 3% of the cluster members were previously identified; we have redefined this cluster as about 10-100 times larger (in projected area) than was previously realized.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Rebull, L. M.0000-0001-6381-515X
Stauffer, J. R.0000-0003-3595-7382
Noriega-Crespo, A.0000-0002-6296-8960
Stapelfeldt, K. R.0000-0002-2805-7338
Carey, S. J.0000-0002-0221-6871
Carpenter, J. M.0000-0003-2251-0602
Padgett, D. L.0000-0001-5334-5107
Additional Information:© 2011 American Astronomical Society. Received 2010 November 4; accepted 2011 February 1; published 2011 March 14. The authors wish to thank the following people: V. Straižys for a helpful article referee report; the c2d team for use of their SWIRE reduction; V. Straižys and collaborators for providing machine-readable tables (and coordinate checks) for several of their publications prior to submission. This research has made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Abstract Service, and of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. This research has made use of data products from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. These data were served by the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research has made use of the Digitized Sky Surveys, which were produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute under U.S. Government grant NAG W-2166. The images of these surveys are based on photographic data obtained using the Oschin Schmidt Telescope on Palomar Mountain and the UK Schmidt Telescope. The plates were processed into the present compressed digital form with the permission of these institutions. This paper makes use of data obtained as part of the INT Photometric Hα Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) carried out at the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). The INT is operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. All IPHAS data, processed by the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit, were obtained via the database and image access provided by Astrogrid. The research described in this paper was partially carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:circumstellar matter; infrared: ISM; infrared: stars; ISM: clouds; ISM: individual objects (NGC 7000, IC 5070, LDN 935); stars: formation; stars: pre-main sequence
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:PACS: 98.38.Hv; 97.10.Fy; 95.85.Hp; 98.38.Dq; 97.21.+a
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110420-111229830
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:23399
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:20 Apr 2011 20:25
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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