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Evaporation from lakes

Cummings, N. W. and Richardson, Burt (1927) Evaporation from lakes. Physical Review, 30 (4). pp. 527-534. ISSN 0031-899X. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.30.527.

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Evaporation can be determined by the aid of the first law of thermodynamics in such a way that wind velocity need not enter the calculation. Air temperature and humidity enter only as terms in a correction which can have a relatively small average value under typical conditions. The complete equation is E=(H-S-C)/L(1+R) where E is the evaporation, H the difference between the incoming and outgoing radiation, S the heat stored in a column of water having unit cross-section, C a correction for heat carried by flowing water and leakage of heat through the walls of the vessel, L the latent heat of water, and R is Bowen's ratio. A method of finding the difference between the incoming and outgoing radiation, by means of observations on a well insulated pan is described, and also a method of finding the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat transmitted through the air-water surface. Bowen's theoretical conclusions respecting this ratio were found to be consistent with observations. The above formula can be used in estimating evaporation from an actual lake whenever the requisite data can be obtained. Although from a physical standpoint the quantity of sensible heat passing through the air-water surface is not strictly negligible, nevertheless is most meteorological and engineering applications, the error caused by neglecting this quantity will be negligible in comparison with other errors that enter the main problem of which evaporation is a part.

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Additional Information:©1927 The American Physical Society. Received 16 May 1927. In conclusion the writers wish to express their appreciation of the many helpful suggestions they have received from Dr. Millikan and other members of the California Institute faculty, and of the assistance given by Paul Richardson in carrying out the observations. Also thanks are extended to R. L. Parshall of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for making possible the use of certain tanks at Fort Collins, Colorado.
Issue or Number:4
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:2504
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:06 Apr 2006
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 19:48

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