A Caltech Library Service

Argon, krypton, and xenon in the bulk solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission

Vogel, Nadia and Heber, Veronika S. and Baur, Heinrich and Burnett, Donald S. and Wieler, Rainer (2011) Argon, krypton, and xenon in the bulk solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75 (11). pp. 3057-3071. ISSN 0016-7037.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We present bulk solar wind isotopic and elemental ratios for Ar, Kr, and Xe averaged from up to 14 individual analyses on silicon targets exposed to the solar wind for ~2.3 years during NASA’s Genesis mission. All averages are given with 1σ standard errors of the means and include the uncertainties of our absolute calibrations. The isotopic ratios ^(86)Kr/^(84)Kr and ^(129)Xe/^(132)Xe are 0.303 ± 0.001 and 1.06 ± 0.01, respectively. The elemental ratios ^(36)Ar/^(84)Kr and ^(84)Kr/^(132)Xe are 2390 ± 120 and 9.9 ± 0.3, respectively. Average fluxes of ^(84)Kr and ^(132)Xe in the bulk solar wind in atoms/(cm^2 s) are 0.166 ± 0.009 and 0.017 ± 0.001, respectively. The flux uncertainties also include a 2% uncertainty for the determination of the extracted areas. The bulk solar wind ^(36)Ar/^(38)Ar ratio of 5.50 ± 0.01 and the ^(36)Ar flux of 397 ± 11 atoms/(cm^2s) determined from silicon targets agree well with the ^(36)Ar/^(38)Ar ratio and the ^(36)Ar flux determined earlier on a different type of target by Heber et al. (2009). A comparison of the solar wind noble gas/oxygen abundance ratios with those in the solar photosphere revealed a slight enrichment of Xe and, within uncertainties a roughly uniform depletion of Kr–He in the solar wind, possibly related to the first ionization potentials of the studied elements. Thus, the solar wind elemental abundances He–Kr display within uncertainties roughly photospheric compositions relative to each other. A comparison of the Genesis data with solar wind heavy noble gas data deduced from lunar regolith samples irradiated with solar wind at different times in the past reveals uniform ^(36)Ar/^(84)Kr ratios over the last 1–2 Ga but an increase of the ^(84)Kr/^(132)Xe ratio of about a factor of 2 during the same time span. The reason for this change in the solar wind composition remains unknown.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Burnett, Donald S.0000-0001-9521-8675
Wieler, Rainer0000-0001-5666-7494
Additional Information:© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Received 20 September 2010; accepted 25 February 2011. Associate editor: Gregory F. Herzog. Available online 2 March 2011. We would like to thank J.H. Allton and the entire Genesis curation team at Johnson Space Center, Houston, USA, for their great support with sample selection and cleaning. We greatly appreciate the detailed and constructive reviews of H. Busemann, J.D. Gilmour, and A.P. Meshik. Finally we would like to thank G.F. Herzog for the helpful comments and suggestions, and the editorial handling of the manuscript. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swiss National Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:11
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20110906-132743767
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Nadia Vogel, Veronika S. Heber, Heinrich Baur, Donald S. Burnett, Rainer Wieler, Argon, krypton, and xenon in the bulk solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 75, Issue 11, 1 June 2011, Pages 3057-3071, ISSN 0016-7037, DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2011.02.039. (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:25233
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:06 Sep 2011 20:51
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

Repository Staff Only: item control page