A Caltech Library Service

Phantom Energy: Dark Energy with w<–1 Causes a Cosmic Doomsday

Caldwell, Robert R. and Kamionkowski, Marc and Weinberg, Nevin N. (2003) Phantom Energy: Dark Energy with w<–1 Causes a Cosmic Doomsday. Physical Review Letters, 91 (7). Art. No. 071301. ISSN 0031-9007. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.071301.

PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We explore the consequences that follow if the dark energy is phantom energy, in which the sum of the pressure and energy density is negative. The positive phantom-energy density becomes infinite in finite time, overcoming all other forms of matter, such that the gravitational repulsion rapidly brings our brief epoch of cosmic structure to a close. The phantom energy rips apart the Milky Way, solar system, Earth, and ultimately the molecules, atoms, nuclei, and nucleons of which we are composed, before the death of the Universe in a "big rip."

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Kamionkowski, Marc0000-0001-7018-2055
Weinberg, Nevin N.0000-0001-9194-2084
Additional Information:© 2003 The American Physical Society (Received 20 February 2003; published 13 August 2003) R. R. C. thanks the UCSB KITP for hospitality. This work was supported at Caltech by NASA NAG5-9821 and DoE DE-FG03-92-ER40701, at the KITP by NSF PHY99-07949, and at Dartmouth by NSF Grant No. PHY-0099543. N. N.W. was supported by NSF.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG03-92-ER40701
Subject Keywords:cosmology; dark energy
Issue or Number:7
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:CALprl03
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:2573
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:10 Apr 2006
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 19:49

Repository Staff Only: item control page