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Flash Point and Chemical Composition of Aviation Kerosene (Jet A)

Shepherd, J. E. and Nuyt, C. D. and Lee, J. J. and Woodrow, J. E. (2000) Flash Point and Chemical Composition of Aviation Kerosene (Jet A). California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA. (Unpublished)

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The relationship between chemical composition, flash point, and ignition energy was examined for eight samples of aviation kerosene (Jet A) with flash points between 29°C (84°F) and 74°C (165°F). We report the results of liquid characterization by two different laboratories. We use the results of headspace gas chromatography carried out by Woodrow and Seiber to characterize the vapor composition at liquid mass loading fractions of 3 and 400 kg/m^3. The composition data were analyzed to obtain analytical representations of vapor pressure and average molar mass as a function of temperature for each flash point fuel. The relationship between composition and flash point is examined by using two prediction methods. The first method is based on the notion of a critical value of fuel-air mass ratio at the flammability limit. The second method is based on Le Chatelier's rule for flammability limits. Both methods show a reasonable correlation between measured and predicted flash point. The relationship between flash point and ignition temperature threshold at a fixed spark ignition energy was examined for four fuels. A linear correlation was obtained for an ignition energy of 0.3 J. The effect of fuel weathering was examined by determining the flashpoints of seven fuel samples obtained from flight tests. The flash point increased about 8°C for fuel that had been exposed to 5 take-off, cruise, and landing cycles.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Technical Report)
Shepherd, J. E.0000-0003-3181-9310
Additional Information:April 2, 2000, Revised: May 26, 2000. Explosion Dynamics Laboratory Report FM99-4. Prepared for and supported by the National Transportation Safety Board Under Order NTSB12-98-CB-0415. We thank Eric Wintenberger (CIT) for carrying out the flash point measurements discussed in Section 6 and also David Tong of ARCO for discussions about the fuel preparation and analysis.
Group:Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories (Fluid Mechanics), GALCIT, Explosion Dynamics Laboratory
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Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Explosion Dynamics Laboratory Report FM99-4
Record Number:CaltechGALCITFM:1999.004
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Usage Policy:You are granted permission for individual, educational, research and non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display and performance of this work in any format.
ID Code:25832
Deposited By: Imported from CaltechGALCITFM
Deposited On:20 Sep 2006
Last Modified:17 Nov 2021 17:33

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