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Separate encoding of model-based and model-free valuations in the human brain

Beierholm, Ulrik R. and Anen, Cedric and Quartz, Steven and Bossaerts, Peter (2011) Separate encoding of model-based and model-free valuations in the human brain. NeuroImage, 58 (3). pp. 955-962. ISSN 1053-8119.

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Behavioral studies have long shown that humans solve problems in two ways, one intuitive and fast (System 1, model-free), and the other reflective and slow (System 2, model-based). The neurobiological basis of dual process problem solving remains unknown due to challenges of separating activation in concurrent systems. We present a novel neuroeconomic task that predicts distinct subjective valuation and updating signals corresponding to these two systems. We found two concurrent value signals in human prefrontal cortex: a System 1 model-free reinforcement signal and a System 2 model-based Bayesian signal. We also found a System 1 updating signal in striatal areas and a System 2 updating signal in lateral prefrontal cortex. Further, signals in prefrontal cortex preceded choices that are optimal according to either updating principle, while signals in anterior cingulate cortex and globus pallidus preceded deviations from optimal choice for reinforcement learning. These deviations tended to occur when uncertainty regarding optimal values was highest, suggesting that disagreement between dual systems is mediated by uncertainty rather than conflict, confirming recent theoretical proposals.

Item Type:Article
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Bossaerts, Peter0000-0003-2308-2603
Additional Information:© 2011 Elsevier Inc. Received 17 December 2010; revised 20 June 2011; Accepted 24 June 2011. Available online 2 July 2011. The authors would like to thank Peter Dayan for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. UB was partly supported by the Gatsby Foundation, SQ and PB by grant SES-0527491 from the U.S. National Science Foundation, and PB by the Swiss Finance Institute.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gatsby FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swiss Finance InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Dual systems; Reinforcement learning; Bayesian inference; Striatum; vmPFC; Decision making
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20111010-101606916
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Official Citation:Ulrik R. Beierholm, Cedric Anen, Steven Quartz, Peter Bossaerts, Separate encoding of model-based and model-free valuations in the human brain, NeuroImage, Volume 58, Issue 3, 1 October 2011, Pages 955-962, ISSN 1053-8119, 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.071.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:27142
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:10 Oct 2011 20:56
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 03:21

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