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Lensed arc statistics: comparison of Millennium simulation galaxy clusters to Hubble Space Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample

Horesh, Assaf and Maoz, Dan and Hilbert, Stefan and Bartelmann, Matthias (2011) Lensed arc statistics: comparison of Millennium simulation galaxy clusters to Hubble Space Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 418 (1). pp. 54-63. ISSN 0035-8711. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20111223-092810567

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Abstract

It has been debated for a decade whether there is a large overabundance of strongly lensed arcs in galaxyclusters, compared to expectations from Λ cold dark matter cosmology. We perform ray tracing through the most massive haloes of the Millennium simulation at several redshifts in their evolution, using the Hubble Ultra Deep Field as a source image, to produce realistic simulated lensed images. We compare the lensed arc statistics measured from the simulations to those of a sample of 45 X-ray selected clusters, observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that we have analysed in Horesh et al. The observations and the simulations are matched in cluster masses, redshifts, observational effects, and the algorithmic arc detection and selection. At z= 0.6, there are too few massive-enough clusters in the Millennium volume for a proper statistical comparison with the observations. At redshifts 0.3 < z < 0.5, however, we have large numbers of simulated and observed clusters, and the latter are an unbiased selection from a complete sample. For these redshifts, we find excellent agreement between the observed and simulated arc statistics, in terms of the mean number of arcs per cluster, the distribution of number of arcs per cluster and the angular separation distribution. At z≈ 0.2 some conflict remains, with real clusters being ~3 times more efficient arc producers than their simulated counterparts. This may arise due to selection biases in the observed subsample at this redshift, to some mismatch in masses between the observed and simulated clusters or to physical effects that arise at low redshift and enhance the lensing efficiency, but which are not represented by the simulations.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19293.xDOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Horesh, Assaf0000-0002-5936-1156
Additional Information:© 2011 The Authors. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS. Accepted 2011 June 20. Received 2011 June 20; in original form 2011 January 21. Article first published online: 31 Oct 2011. We thank V. Springel for his help in accessing the Millennium data and J. -P. Kneib for discussions. We thank the anonymous referee for constructive comments. AH acknowledges support by the Dan David Foundation. SH acknowledges support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the Priority Programme 1177 under the project SCHN 342/6 and by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) through the TR 33, ‘The Dark Universe’. MB also acknowledges support by the BMBF, TR 33.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Dan David FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SCHN 342/6-1
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)TR 33
Subject Keywords: miscellaneous; gravitational lensing: strong; methods: numerical; methods: statistical; galaxies: clusters: general; large-scale structure of Universe
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20111223-092810567
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20111223-092810567
Official Citation:Horesh, A., Maoz, D., Hilbert, S. and Bartelmann, M. (2011), Lensed arc statistics: comparison of Millennium simulation galaxy clusters to Hubble Space Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 418: 54–63. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19293.x
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:28585
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:23 Dec 2011 17:55
Last Modified:20 Nov 2019 20:40

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