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Stacking-dependent band gap and quantum transport in trilayer graphene

Bao, Wenzhong and Jing, Lei and Velasco, J., Jr. and Lee, Y.-W. and Liu, Gang and Tran, D. and Standley, B. and Aykol, M. and Cronin, S. B. and Smirnov, D. and Koshino, M. and McCann, E. and Bockrath, M. and Lau, Chun Ning (2011) Stacking-dependent band gap and quantum transport in trilayer graphene. Nature Physics, 7 (12). pp. 948-952. ISSN 1745-2473.

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Graphene is an extraordinary two-dimensional (2D) system with chiral charge carriers and fascinating electronic, mechanical and thermal properties. In multilayer graphene, stacking order provides an important yet rarely explored degree of freedom for tuning its electronic properties. For instance, Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene (B-TLG) is semi-metallic with a tunable band overlap, and rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (r-TLG) is predicted to be semiconducting with a tunable band gap. These multilayer graphenes are also expected to exhibit rich novel phenomena at low charge densities owing to enhanced electronic interactions and competing symmetries. Here we demonstrate the dramatically different transport properties in TLG with different stacking orders, and the unexpected spontaneous gap opening in charge neutral r-TLG. At the Dirac point, B-TLG remains metallic, whereas r-TLG becomes insulating with an intrinsic interaction-driven gap ~6 meV. In magnetic fields, well-developed quantum Hall (QH) plateaux in r-TLG split into three branches at higher fields. Such splitting is a signature of the Lifshitz transition, a topological change in the Fermi surface, that is found only in r-TLG. Our results underscore the rich interaction-induced phenomena in trilayer graphene with different stacking orders, and its potential towards electronic applications.

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Aykol, M.0000-0001-6433-7217
Additional Information:© 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 7 June 2011; accepted 19 August 2011; published online 25 September 2011. This work was supported in part by ONR/DMEA H94003-10-2-1003, NSF CAREER DMR/0748910,ONRN00014-09-1-0724, and the FENA Focus Center. D.S. acknowledges the support by NHMFL UCGP #5068. The trenches are fabricated at UCSB. Part of this work was performed at NHMFL which is supported by NSF/DMR-0654118, the State of Florida, and DOE. S.B.C. acknowledges the support by ONR/N00014-10-1-0511. M.K. and E.M. acknowledge the support by JST-EPSRC EP/H025804/1. Author contributions: C.N.L. and W.B. conceived the experiments; W.B. and D.T. isolated and identified graphene sheets; W.B., L.J., Y.L., J.V., G.L, B.S. and D.S. performed transport measurements; W.B., L.J., M.A. and S.B.C. performed Raman measurements; C.N.L., M.B., W.B., L.J. and J.V. interpreted and analysed the data; M.K. and E.M. interpreted data and performed theoretical calculations; C.N.L., M.B., W.B. and E.M. co-wrote the paper. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office of Naval Research (ONR)H94003-10-2-1003
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-09-1-0724
State of FloridaUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-10-1-0511
Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120120-131549007
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:28893
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:20 Jan 2012 21:57
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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